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Full text of "Pacific Cod Fisheries"

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

HUGH M. SMITH, Commissioner 



Clemson University 




3 1604 019 780 255 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES 



By John N, Cobb 



APPENDIX IV TO THE REPORT OF THE U. S. COMMISSIONER 
OF FISHERIES FOR 1915 




Bureau of Fisheries Document No* 830 



Library 
Goytrnnum t Publications 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1916 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 830. 



Plate I 




C<2.t : 3\5- €^^ 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

HUGH M. SMITH, Commissioner 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES 



By John N* Cobb 



APPENDIX IV TO THE REPORT OF THE U. S. COMMISSIONER 
OF FISHERIES FOR 1915 




Bureau of Fisheries Document No. 830 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1916 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

25 CENTS PER COPY 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES 

By John N. Cobb 



Appendix IV to the Report of the U. S. Commissioner 
of Fisheries for I9J5 

1 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/pacificcodfisherOOjohn 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Natural history of the cod 5 

Distribution 6 

Size 7 

Migrations 8 

Spawning 9 

Young 9 

Food 9 

Other members of the Gadidae 10 

Species miscalled cod 12 

Banks frequented by cod 13 

Offshore banks in Bering Sea 14 

Offshore banks in the North Pacific Ocean 16 

Inshore banks 20 

Banks on the Asiatic shore 23 

History of the Pacific codfishery 23 

History of Alaska shore-fishing stations 37 

Persons employed 41 

Vessels and boats 42 

Lay of the crew 45 

Season, methods, etc 48 

Dressing the fish 56 

Shore-station methods 58 

Wastage in the industry 62 

Preparing cod for market 63 

Use of preservatives 71 

Market for Pacific cod 72 

Comparative analyses of Pacific and Atlantic cod 75 

Reddening of cod 75 

Brown mold 79 

The industry in 1915 79 

Persons employed 79 

Investment 80 

Products 81 

The fishing fleet in 1915 81 

The transporting fleet in 1915 82 

Alaska shore stations operated in 1915 83 

Summary of catch 84 

Summary of vessel fishing data 84 

Detailed data of the fishing fleet, 1863 to 1915 87 

Summary of shore-station data 99 

Detailed operations of transporting fleet, 1876 to 1915 100 

Disasters to the fleet 107 

Bibliography 108 

3 



/ 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



By John N. Cobb. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE COD. 

Strange to relate, while the fishery for Pacific cod has been prose- 
cuted since early in the sixties, scientists are not yet agreed as to the 
proper name for the species. According to Bean a " Most writers 
have referred to it under the name of Gadus macrocephalus, which 
was bestowed by Tilesius upon the Kamchatkan cod, the figure of 
which suggests that it was based upon a deformed individual. Cope, 
in 1873, described the young of the common Alaska cod as a new 
species, Gadus auratus, from specimens collected by Prof. George 
Davidson, of the United States Coast Survey, at Unalaska. Stein- 
dachner, in the Proceedings (Sitzungsberichte) of the Vienna 
Academy, lxi, 1, 1870, adopts the name G. macrocephalus for a large 
cod taken in De Castries Bay (mouth of Amur River), Siberia. In 
this example the length of the head is contained exactly three times 
in the total length to the extreme end of the pointed caudal peduncle. 
The same proportion may, however, be found in any place where 
large numbers of Gadus morrhua are taken, and it can readily be 
proven to be only a matter of individual variation." 

In the summer of 1880, the late Prof. Spencer F. Baird, then 
United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, sent Dr. Tarleton 
H. Bean to Alaska for the purpose of investigating its fish and 
fisheries, and he made the first extended report on the Pacific cod 
that had been made up to that time. 6 As a result of his investiga- 
tions, he considers the Atlantic and Pacific cod as of the same species. 
Jordan and Evermann c call it G. macrocephalus, and in justification 
of this state : " In external respects we recognize no distinction be- 
tween this species [referring to a specimen 20 inches long taken in the 
Strait of Juan de Fuca by the Albatross] and the common eastern 
codfish, except that the head seems larger." They also quote Dr. 
Gilbert d as follows: "It has been frequently pointed out, and is well 

« The Cod Fishery of Alaska, by Tarleton H. Bean. The Fisheries and Fishery Indus- 
tries of the United States, pt. 11, sec. 5, vol. I, p. 198, 199. 

* Ibid., p. 198-226. 

c The Fishes of North and Middle America, by D. S. Jordan and B. W. Evermann. 
Bulletin, United States National Museum, no. 47, pt. Ill, p. 2541, 2542. (1898.) 

d Ibid., p. 2542. 



6 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

known to fishermen, that the Pacific codfish has a smaller air bladder 
or sound than the Atlantic cod. Pending an examination of this 
question, which we are not now in a position to make, we propose 
to recognize the Pacific fish as a distinct species." 

Much has been said and written of the difference in size between 
the sound of the Atlantic cod and that of the Pacific. A large part 
of this is hearsay, based largely on the statements of fishermen, few 
of whom have ever made any effort to save them. The writer cut 
out a few sounds in 1913, but, unfortunately, these were lost in some 
way during transportation; and, although it had been some years 
since he had cut a sound from an Atlantic cod, it seemed to him 
that the Pacific sounds were almost, if not quite, as large, but thin- 
ner. Some few years ago the Alaska Codfish Co. made an effort to 
save the sounds at one of its Alaska stations, but the men refused to 
do so except at an exorbitant price. A. Greenebaum, the president 
of the company, writes that the sounds are small in size. 

The only authentic record the writer has of a direct comparison 
of Pacific and Atlantic sounds is in a letter from Dr. W. C. Kendall, 
assistant, United States Bureau of Fisheries, under date of Jan- 
uary 22, 1915, in which he states: 

The air bladder of the big Pacific cod [the weight of this was about 30 pounds 
and ils total length about 39 inches], after removal, measured about 13 inches 
in length, with no perceptible horns excepting slight projections, but it had a 
very large pouch on each side of the anterior end. 

The air bladder of the big Atlantic cod [of a weight of 34| pounds and a 
length of 43i inches] was of the same length approximately, pouches small, 
but the horns, which could not be fully straightened out, measured each 10 
inches in length. In natural position in the fish they are coiled up. 

The small Pacific cod [8 or (9?) pounds and 28| inches long] was in such 
bad condition that the air bladder could not be removed intact, but the one 
horn that could be found was only 1 inch in length. 

The other Atlantic cod [weights and lengths about the same] had air blad- 
ders and horns as follows: Length 9], horns 2$ and 3; length 10$, horns 3^ 
and 3] ; length 10 inches, horns 7 and 5| inches. 

It is to be hoped that some one will soon take up the study of 
the comparison of the sounds from the cod of both oceans, as should 
the Pacific sound prove to be uniformly smaller than those from 
the Atlantic cod it would furnish a distinguishing feature. 

DISTRIBUTION. 

The Pacific cod is occasionally found as far south as Cape Flattery 
on the Washington coast. From Puget Sound north to southeast 
Alaska they are said to be more common, although in no part of this 
region is a commercial fishery maintained for them. In southeast 
Alaska, in early years, a small fishery was maintained in and ad- 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 7 

jacent to Chatham Strait, but nothing has been done here of recent 
years. Cod in abundance are not to be found until the Portlock Bank 
is reached. From here to Akutan Pass cod are very abundant, and 
probably will be found in considerable abundance along the Aleutian 
Chain beyond the pass. In Bering Sea, between Unimak Pass and 
Bristol Bay, are to be found several large and important banks ad- 
jacent to Unimak Island and the Peninsula. They have been re- 
ported as far north as St. Lawrence Island in Bering Sea, but none 
have been reported in the Arctic Ocean. Edgar O. Campbell, a 
school-teacher for the United States Bureau of Education, on St. 
Lawrence Island, in a letter dated September 21, 1909, has the fol- 
lowing to say as to the presence of cod around the island : 

A few codfish feed here and are caught every year from July to October, but 
not in any appreciable numbers except every third to fifth year. This year 
promises to be a good one, although the Eskimos are so timid they will not go 
out for more than a half mile from shore in their skin canoes. Some years 
the fish stay until in November and great numbers of them are caught by the 
ice as the sea freezes over. How do you suppose this happens? I have sup- 
posed that, as the top of the sea coats over with a slushy soft ice, the cod, for 
some reason or other, it may be for air, jump up through the ice and fall on 
the surface, their weight not being sufficient to carry them below into water 
again. At any rate they soon freeze and, as soon as the ice is solid enough 
to walk on, the Eskimo bring them home in great piles, like cordwood. This 
has happened twice since we came in 1901. In such years the fox catch is 

sure to be light, for the fox are so well fed they are wary of prepared bait. 

* * * 

On the Asiatic shore cod have been reported as far north as Cape 
Tchaplin. East Siberia, while they have been found as far south as 
Hakodate in Japan. They are most abundant in the Okhotsk Sea. 

SIZE. 

A very erroneous idea of the size of Pacific cod seems to be prevalent 
in certain works on ichthyology. Even as late as 1907 Evermann 
and Goldsborough & state : " We have no record of any large examples 
of this cod from the Pacific, where it perhaps does not reach a 
weight exceeding 15 or 20 pounds." Bean c reports having seen 
many which weighed not less than 30 pounds caught on the inshore 
banks, where the cod are notably smaller than those found on the 
offshore banks. He also quotes reports from others as to cod weigh- 
ing from 20 to 50 pounds. 

The writer spent the summer of 1913 at the Pirate Cove station of 
the Union Fish Co. During the greater part of the time almost no 

° Mr. Campbell had written for information as to how the natives could best catch cod 
for their own use. 

6 The Fishes of Alaska, by B. W. Evermann and E. L. Goldsborough. Bulletin, United 
States Bureau of Fisheries, vol. xxvi, 1906, p. 348. (1907.) 

c The cod fishery of Alaska, by Tarleton H. Bea . The Fisheries and Fishery Indus- 
tries of the United States, pt. n, sec. 5, vol. i, p. 202, 203. 



8 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

snappers were to be seen and the fish averaged very large — probably 
12 to 15 pounds most of the time. On June 15 he weighed 6 cod, 
selected so as to show the different sizes, with the following results: 
One weighed 40 pounds, length 43 inches from tip to tip: one 
weighed 37 pounds, length 42J inches from tip to tip; one weighed 
22 pounds; one weighed 21 pounds, length 30 inches from tip to tip; 
one weighed 23 J pounds; one weighed 11J pounds, length 31 inches 
from tip to tip. 

He had the first fish dressed immediately after being weighed and 
measured, and when ready for the salting tank it weighed 21 pounds. 
Before being weighed in the first place all of these fish had been 
bled by having their throats cut. 

On a number of occasions he saw fish at the shore stations which 
would undoubtedly run over 40 pounds if put on the scales. All of 
the fish noted above w T ere from inshore banks. Cod run larger in 
size on the offshore banks, and it is probable that fish running from 
50 to 60 pounds are sometimes taken on Slime and Sannak Banks, 
where the largest cod are found. 

During the winter months the cod are quite thin and watery, and 
probably would not average in the round much more than 7 to 9 
pounds. 

There are no records of any monster specimens having been secured 
on the Pacific banks, similar to those reported occasionally from the 
Atlantic. Capt. J. A. Matheson, of Anacortes, Wash., who has been 
engaged in the cod fishery for a number of years, says that the largest 
dry-salted cod he ever received from his vessels weighed 18 pounds. 

In the southern part of its range the cod are generally small, in 
many places being no larger than those known as snappers on the 
cod banks. 

MIGRATIONS. 

On the main cod banks fish are to be found throughout the year, 
although very scarce at times. On certain of the inshore banks cod 
are to be found all the year in considerable abundance,* with periods 
of great abundance; on other inshore banks only during the winter 
months are the fish found in any abundance, while on others they 
are plentiful only during the summer months. Pirate Cove, Unga, 
and Kelleys Rock are all-the-year-round stations, the Sannak Island 
and Northwest Harbor stations are all-winter ones, while Sanborn 
and Dora Harbors are open only during the summer months. At the 
stations open the whole year the best fishing is usually from March 
to September, both inclusive. Part of this superiority is undoubtedly 
due to the better weather which prevails during these months than 
during the rest of the year, but the reports and statistics all agree 
in showing that there is a greater shoreward migration of the schools 
during this period. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



SPAWNING. 



Cod are found spawning during the winter months, principally in 
January and February. Those caught during February and March 
and the early part of April are usually quite thin, due to their 
having spawned shortly before this. 

In many females the eggs are not extruded at the regular period, 
and in many instances these eventually harden into an almost solid 
mass. At Pirate Cove, in 1913, the author's attention was early called 
to these delayed spawners. The first one was observed on May 10, 
shortly after his arrival at the station. From then on they occasion- 
ally appeared until early in August, when they became quite numer- 
ous. On June 25 he cut out of one female a roe which weighed 8 
pounds. Occasionally the eggs would be found in a mass, with the 
usual envelope missing. In no instance that he observed did this con- 
dition seem to affect the health of the fish, all of them appearing to 
be normal fish so far as food qualities, weight, etc., were concerned. 

YOUNG. 

Dr. Bean's observations showed young cod as present in shallow 
water near shore at some place or other on the Pacific side between 
Cooks Inlet and Unalaska between May and October, and that about 
the middle of the latter month they reach an average length of 4 or 
5 inches. 

On September 7, 1913, the writer first noticed large numbers of 
young cod from 2 to 4 inches in length swimming around Pirate Cove 
harbor, and they were still there in large numbers when he left on 
September 26. The small native boys would occasionally catch them 
on a baited hook or bent pin, which the fry would eagerly pursue. 
They were also occasionally found in the stomachs of adults brought 
in by the fishermen, showing conclusively that the cod do not dis- 
criminate against their own offspring. 

FOOD. 

The food of the Pacific cod is as plentiful and as varied as in the 
Atlantic. Any fish that it can capture forms a part of its food. The 
writer opened and examined the stomachs of many cod at Pirate Cove 
station during the summers of 1912 and 1913, and he was surprised at 
the variety of food found therein. Daring July, 1913, shrimp were 
exceedingly abundant in their stomachs. He also found three ducks 
with bright red feet, known locally as "Alaska pigeons," these had 
evidently been swallowed but a short time before, as they were all in 
an excellent state of preservation. Alaska pollock (Theragra chdlco- 
gramma) seemed to be the chief food of he cod, although, strange to 



10 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

relate, it was found to be absolutely worthless as bait when cut into 
pieces. Sculpihs are frequently found in its stomach, as are also sal- 
mon, herring (Olupea pallasi), capelin, halibut, and sand launce 
(Ammodytes personatus) . Yellow striped fish, or "Atka mackerel' 
(Pleurogrammus monopterygius) , is a popular article of food when 
in season. The male red rock trout (Hexagrammos superciliosus) , 
which has greenish colored flesh and is given the common name of 
" P or gy " u y the fishermen, is a favorite article of food. Sometimes 
young cod are found in the stomachs of the adults. Octopi and 
shrimp are favorites of the cod, and during the summer mouths their 
stomachs will be found, in certain sections, to be filled with the 
iatter. 

OTHER MEMBERS OF THE GADIDiE. 

An odd feature of the cod fisheries of the Pacific is the total ab- 
sence of the haddock and hake, which form such a large proportion of 
the catch of the Atlantic Gadidae fishery. The pollock of Alaska is 
quite different from the one found on the Atlantic. The minor species 
of the Gadidae found on this coast are described below. 

Ling. — The ling (Lota maculosa) is our only fresh-water member 
of the Gadidae, and is said to be common in the Yukon Basin, and has 
also been reported from the Nushagak, Fraser, and Columbia Rivers. 
It attains a length of 1 to 3 feet. Although fully as palatable as 
the ling found in east-coast streams, it is rarely utilized as food, 
except in British Columbia and Washington, where large quantities 
are marketed. 

Tomcod. — The tomcod, or wachna (Micvogadus proximus), is 
found in abundance from Alaska to Monterey. In the more southern 
portions of its range it is often sold in the markets as " smelt." In 
form the tomcod is a miniature cod, and there is difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing the young of the two species. The tomcod rarely ex- 
ceeds a foot in length and is esteemed as a delicacy in many localities. 

In the northern portion of Bering Sea the wachna, as it is called, 
is of great importance to the natives, who depend upon it for a con- 
siderable part of their food supply during the winter season. Mr. 
Dall n has the following to say of this fishery: 

This fish much resembles the common tomcod of the Eastern States, * * * 
hut while the latter is of most insignificant importance from its scarcity and 
poor quality, the former species occupies a very important place in the domestic 
economy of both natives and Russians on both shores of Bering Sea. It is 
apparently a permanent inhabitant of these coasts, hut is most abundant in 
the fall of the year, when the ice begins to form in the rivers and along the 
shores. The Waukhni fishery commences about the middle of October. At first 
it is caught from boats anchored close inshore, but later the natives cut holes 

•Report of Commissioner of Agriculture for 1870, p. 381. (1871.) 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 11 

in the new ice, set up two or three stakes, with a mat hung upon them to keep 
off the wind, and sit there all day, hauling them in as fast as the line is dropped 
into the water. The hook is made of white walrus ivory, furnished with a 
sharp pin set in obliquely, but without a barb. The whiteness of the ivory, 
which is kept constantly in motion, attracts the fish, but no bait whatever is 
used. In November, when the ice becomes very thick and the cold increases, 
the fish retire to deeper water, and the fishing is over until the following 
spring. * * * They are preserved by removing the intestines and drying in 
large bunches strung on seal line, or by throwing them as they are into long 
cylindrical baskets made of twisted grass and keeping them entire in a frozen 
state. * * * They are among the most palatable of the many fish found in 
these seas, and the number preserved is so great as to be almost incalculable. 
They serve the natives for food, either boiled or in the frozen state. They also 
form an important article of dog feed in the northern portions of Alaska near 
the coast. 

Hon. James Wickersham, Delegate from Alaska, has furnished the 

author with the following description of the apparatus used by the 

natives and their method of operating same of recent years : 

When the Eskimo woman is fishing through the ice on Bering Sea for tomcod 
she uses a line with a barbless hook at the end. She also has two short sticks 
in her hands and generally a baby strapped on her back. As soon as she gets 
a bite she slips one stick a foot or two down the line and begins raising it up. 
As soon as the stick gets too high she slips the other a few feet below the first, 
but on the other side of the line, and thus continues hauling in the line with 
the sticks alternately until finally the catch comes above the ice. With a quick 
movement of the line and stick the fish is shook off, and frequently before it 
falls onto the ice is frozen solid. The woman is wearing heavy gloves, and the 
reason for not touching the wet line with the gloved hands is to prevent them 
from getting wet and covered with ice and thus becoming useless. The line is 
lowered in the same manner, and from long practice the natives are very ex- 
pert. The fish are put in baskets and will keep fresh as long as they remain 
frozen. A windbreak of ice and snow is frequently constructed. 

Alaska pollock. — The Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) 
is an abundant and widely distributed species in Alaska. It is found 
in the Bering Sea and the neighboring waters south to Sitka and the 
Kurils. It usually swims near the surface and forms a considerable 
portion of the food of the fur seal and the cod. It reaches a length of 
3 feet, although the average is more nearly about half this. At present 
no use is made of it as food, although it will in time become an 
important item in the commercial fisheries. In 1907 the writer 
caught a specimen at Seward, Alaska, but it was apparently so rare 
in that locality that no one there seemed to recognize it. 

South of Sitka is found a closely related species, T . fucensis, which 
is said to be abundant in Puget Sound, and is found as far south 
as Monterey Bay. 

Eleginus navaga is common and abundant along the entire Alaska 
coast, and on the Asiatic side as far south as the Kamchatka Penin- 
sula, at least. It is rarely ever used as food, due to the great 
abundance of other better-known fishes. 



\2 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

Polar cod. — The polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is common along 
the coasts of Arctic Alaska and northern Siberia. Like the pollock, 
this species has the lower jaw longer than the upper. They form an 
important article of food with the Eskimos during certain seasons 
of the year. John Murdoch has the following description of the 
fishery : 

Usually during the latter part of October and early in November, after 
the sea has closed and when tide-cracks form along the shore, the natives 
generally catch a good many of them at the very edge of the beach in about 
a foot of water. 

They use a short line of whalebone to which is attached a small lure made 
of blackened ivory, which roughly represents an amphipod crustacean and is 
armed with a barbless hook. 

After this no more are caught till after the return of the sun, early in 
February. The natives say that they go away, and it is quite probable that 
they leave the shore and go off into deeper water. If there were any fish to 
be caught, the natives would undoubtedly fish for them during the winter 
months, as at this season they are frequently hard pressed for food. 

Early in February they become exceedingly abundant in about 15 fathoms 
of water wherever there is a level field of the season's ice not. over 4 feet in 
thickness, inclosed between rows of hummocks of broken ice. * * * Large 
numbers of the natives from the Cape Smythe village, especially women and 
children, resorted to this field nearly every day and caught these fish literally 
by the bushel. 

The fish are jigged and the hook is kept near the bottom. 

SPECIES MISCALLED COD. 

A confusing feature on the Pacific coast is the number of species, 
unrelated to the Gadidre and none of which resemble the true cod, 
which are commonly known as cod and which are frequently classed 
with the cod by the uninitiated. Among these the more prominent 
are the following: Cultus cod, blue cod, or buffalo cod (Ophiodon 
elongatus), is a large, coarse fish reaching a length of 3 to 4 feet, and 
a weight of 30 or 40 pounds, w T ith the flesh a livid blue or green in 
color. It is found from Sitka to Santa Barbara, and is especially 
important as a food fish in British Columbia and the State of Wash- 
ington. In cooking, the flesh of this fish turns white. 

Black cod, coalfish, beshow, or skill (Anoplopoma fimbria), is 
found from the Aleutian Islands to Monterey. It is most abun- 
dant in the regions frequented by the halibut, from southeast Alaska 
to the Washington coast. It attains a length of 18 to 20 inches and 
a weight of 5 pounds. Many are marketed in a fresh, frozen, or 
salted condition, and the fish is growing steadily in popularity. It 
is usually taken in deep water, from TO to 90 fathoms, though it is 
often found even at depths of 200 to 250 fathoms. 

" Natural History, Report of the International Polar Expedition to Point Barrow, 
Alaska, Fishes, p. 129-30. (1885.) 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 13 

Several species of Sebastodes (notably S. ruberrimus, S. pinniger, 

and S. mystinus) , known as red rock cod, are found from San Diego 

to Alaska. They are excellent food fishes and are in considerable 

demand. 

BANKS FREQUENTED BY COD. 

The codfishing banks are of two kinds — the inshore banks, which 
lie close in to shore, or in the bays, straits, and sounds between the 
numerous islands and the mainland and between the islands them- 
selves, and the outer banks, which lie at varying distances off the 
mainland or the various groups of islands. Together they form by 
far the largest group of cod banks in the world. 

Outside of the surveys made by the United States Bureau of Fish- 
eries steamer Albatross, very little has been done to fix with cer- 
tainty the boundaries of the various banks and much remains to 
be accomplished in this line. The Albatross survey has been supple- 
mented by data obtained from fishermen frequenting these banks and 
from personal observation over a period comprising several fishing 
seasons. 

According to the investigations of the Albatross, the following 
represent, roughly, the areas of the offshore banks upon which she 
worked, although in several instances the work was suspended before 
the end of the bank was reached : 

Sq. miles. 

Slime Bank 1, 445 

Baird Bank 9, 200 

Between Ugoinak Island and Kiliulnk Bay, in the Pacific Ocean 2, 000 

Davidson Bank 1, 600 

Sannak Bank 1, 300 

Between Sannak and Shumagin Banks 1, 800 

Shumagin Bank 1, 800 

Albatross Bank 3, 700 

Portlock Bank 6, 800 



Total 29,645 

Practically no attempt was made by the Albatross to seek for cod 
banks along the Aleutian Chain west of Akutan Pass, where cod are 
said to be numerous. Also no attempt was made to find banks in 
Bering Sea north of Cape Newenham, although cod have been found 
as far north as St. Lawrence Island. 

No estimate has ever been made of the extent of the inshore banks, 
which are very extensive. It is probable that these would be from 
one-third to one-half the area of the offshore banks, possibly more. 

No one knows the extent of the cod banks along the Asiatic shores 

of the Pacific Ocean, but they can not be much smaller, if any, than 

those on the American side, and it is possible that more extended 

I investigations will develop that they meet the American banks at 

certain places. 



14 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

OFFSHORE BANKS IN BERING SEA. 

Owing to a lack of good harbors in Bering Sea, the offshore banks 
are the only ones frequented at present by the fishing vessels, and 
these are amongst the most productive in all Alaska. As the hold- 
ing ground on these banks is good, a properly equipped vessel finds 
little difficulty in riding out all ordinary gales. All cod banks so far 
found are mostly situated to the eastward of a line connecting Cape 
Newenham with the northwest cape of Unimak Island and off the 
northern side of Unalaska Island. 

Slime Bank. — The first cod bank to be reached by a fishing vessel 
after entering Bering Sea is Slime Bank. As delineated by the 
Albatross, it begins directly off Cape Sarichef, the northwest cape of 
Unimak Island, is elongate in shape, and follows approximately 
the trend of the adjacent coast to within a few miles of Amak 
Island, its inner margin lying only a short distance off the land. 
It is about 85 miles in length and 17 miles in average width, broaden- 
ing somewhat at the eastern end; its total area is estimated at about 
1,445 square miles. The depths found on the bank range from 20 
to 50 fathoms, while the bottom consists generally of black sand 
and gravel, frequently intermingled with pebbles, and sometimes 
of gray and yellow sand, rocks also occurring near the shore. 

The deep water lying off the northern entrance to Unimak Pass 
forms the western end of the bank, 70 fathoms being found near the 
edge and depths exceeding 100 fathoms a short distance farther away. 
Off its northern edge the depths determined by the soundings of the 
Albatross range from 53 to 62 fathoms, with muddy bottom at 
three of them. Toward the eastern end, however, on the northern 
side sand and gravel occur, and in this locality the precise limits of 
the bank are still undefined. 

There are no harbors suitable for cod vessels along the adjacent 
shore, although protection may be found in several bays, notably 
Dublin and Shaw Bays, during southeast to southwest winds. Amak 
Island, which lies about 11 miles off Izenbeck Bay, also furnishes 
some protection during the prevalence of southeast and southwest 
winds. 

The bank derives its name from the presence of immense numbers 
of a large jellyfish, brownish or rusty in color, measuring 6 to 18 
inches across the disk, and provided with long slender tentacles 
having great stinging powers. It is said by the fishermen that 
the jellyfish are never observed upon the surface of the sea. but seem 
to occupy an intermediate zone toward the bottom. They claim that 
these animals sometimes interfere with the hooks reaching bottom, 
and by covering the bait render it unattractive to the fish. When 
brought to the surface they are uncomfortable objects for the fisher- 
men to disentangle from the hook and line. Thev do not become 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 15 

abundant until the latter part of June, when the fishermen generally 
move on to Baird Bank. 

Probably the finest cod secured on any of the Alaska banks are 
taken on Slime Bank. 

Baird Bank. — Baird Bank, so named by Capt. Tanner of the 
Albatross in honor of Prof. Spencer F. Baird, the first United States 
Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, was then generally known to 
the fishermen, and is yet to a few of them, as the Port Moller bank 
or ground. As described and charted by the Albatross, it commences 
a few miles east of Amak Island and extends northeastward off the 
northern side of the Alaska Peninsula to the vicinity of Cape 
Chichagof, at the mouth of the Ugaguk River, a distance of about 
230 miles. It has an average width of about 40 miles and an extreme 
width of 58 miles, its total area being estimated at about 9,200 square 
miles, making it the largest known bank in Alaska, and some 800 
miles more than that of Georges Bank, in the North Atlantic Ocean. 

The Albatross investigations indicated, however, a strong proba- 
bility that the Kululak ground and the region off Cape Pierce are 
really extensions of this bank, the investigations not having been 
carried to a definite conclusion with respect to this matter. Outside 
of Bristol Bay the observations were not carried beyond the limits 
of the bank as defined by the Albatross, and the entire width of its 
western portion still remains to be determined. It is also not im- 
possible, according to Capt. Tanner, that some connection may be 
found to exist between Baird and Slime Banks to the north of Amak 
Island. A line of stations from Cape Newenham to the Northwest 
Cape of Unimak Island, however, showed good fishing only in the 
vicinity of land. 

Like Slime Bank, but few harbors are to be found along the shores 
adjacent to Baird Bank. Vessels occasionally take refuge in Port 
Moller, Herendeen Bay, and Port Heiden, but usually the vessels 
ride out the storms or draw in close to the peninsula shore during 
southeast winds. 

Kululak Bay. — Kululak Bay occupies a large part of the region 
included between Cape Constantine and Cape Newenham and con- 
tains Hagemeister Island and the Walrus Group. Within this area 
the Albatross investigators found cod in isolated spots, scarcely en- 
titled to the name of banks. Extensive shoals occur off Hagemeister 
and the Walrus Islands, 6 fathoms being found about 15 miles to 
the southward of the latter. The principal fishing grounds are out- 
side of these shoals as well as to the eastward and westward of them, 
in depths of 12 to 25 fathoms, the bottom consisting generally of 
sand, with some mud and gravel, and the fi una being essentially the 
same as on Baird and Slime Banks. 
30079°— 16 2 



16 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

Some years ago the fishermen occasionally resorted to a small 
ground, called Gravel Bank, situated about 16 miles south-southwest 
from the southern end of Hagemeister Island, where large cod are 
reported to be abundant. It has depths of 16 to 20 fathoms, but 
its size is inconsiderable. 

Vessels entering Bering Sea fish first on Slime Bank, usually in or 
just off Dublin Bay. From here they work to the eastward, leaving 
for Baird Bank when the jellyfish become too numerous on Slime 
Bank. No fishing is now carried on in the Kululak ground. 

The Albatross investigations were not carried north of Cape New- 
enham; cod have been reported at various places between here and 
Bering Strait and in the Arctic. They are said to be abundant in 
the neighborhood of St. Lawrence Island. 

OFFSHORE BANKS IN THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 

The Albatross ran three lines of soundings over the area lying 
between the longitude of Ugamok Island, at the southern entrance to 
Unimak Pass, and that of Kiliuluk Bay (longitude 164° 55' to 167° 
*vest) and between the coast and the inner edge of the steep sub- 
marine slope. These soundings were not sufficient to demonstrate the 
existence of a defined bank in this region, but it was estimated that 
an area of about 2,000 square geographical miles was suitable for 
fishing. This has been borne out by the experiences of a number of 
fishing vessels which have made good catches at certain places in 
this area on various occasions. 

Even farther to the westward occasional trials have been made 
by cod vessels, when becalmed inside the 100-fathom curve or when 
seeking water, and good catches of cod made. 

Davidson Bank. — This bank was first reported by Prof. George 
Davidson, of the United States Coast Survey, about 1868, and was 
named in his honor. He made a number of soundings upon it in 
depths of about 50 fathoms and found cod abundant in some places. 
In 1888 the Albatross established the outline and surface contour of 
this bank with considerable accuracy. 

The bank lies south of Unimak Island and extends westward from 
the neighborhood of the Sannak Islands to about the longitude of 
the southern entrance to Unimak Pass (about longitude 164° 40' 
west). Its eastern end seems to be continuous with the shoal water 
surrounding the Sannak Islands. The greatest width of this bank 
off Unimak Island is 45 to 50 miles. Depths less than 50 fathoms 
were found over a large part of the bank, 41 fathoms being the 
shoalest water discovered. Between the shallow area and the islands 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 17 

to the north and northwest of it depths of 50 to 72 fathoms occur. 
The area of Davidson Bank is estimated at about 1,600 square miles. 

The bottom upon the bank consists, in different places, of fine to 
coarse sand, pebbles, and gravel. Green mud is found at a depth of 
95 fathoms near the outer edge of the bank and black sand in 342 
fathoms just off the bank. 

Sannak Bank. — The principal bank resorted to by the few vessels 
which fish throughout the season in the North Pacific is Sannak 
Bank. This bank lies to the east and southeast of the Sannak 
Islands, is somewhat elongate in shape, and trends in a general way 
northeast and southwest. About the central spot on the bank is in 
latitude 54° 20' north, longitude 161° 53' west. To the westward 
it joins Davidson Bank, the dividing line being at a point approxi- 
mately south of the middle of the group. The soundings on this 
bank show depths from 30 to 82 fathoms. Much of the bottom is 
rocky; sand, pebbles, gravel, etc., also occur. The estimated area of 
the bank is 1,300 square miles. 

The cod taken on this bank are very large and of excellent quality, 
and are the finest fish taken on any of the Alaska banks with the 
exception of those from Slime Bank in Bering Sea. 

To tr-3 mariner unacquainted with these waters this is a dangerous 
region, but to one acquainted harbors of refuge are numerous. 
Caton Harbor, formed by Caton, Elma, and Sannak Islands, is the 
chief place of refuge for the larger vessels, as it is easy to get into 
from either the northern or southwestern entrance, and when inside 
there is excellent holding ground and ample protection from all 
winds. Small vessels, especially power vessels, in case of storm gen- 
erally anchor close in to the leeward of Caton Island and are safe. 
On the northern side of Sannak Island vessels drawing 14 and 15 
feet can easily enter Pavlof Harbor at high tide, but at low tide 
vessels drawing more than 6 feet would have difficulty in entering. 
The channel is rather tortuous but is buoyed. Inside the anchorage 
is rather limited, as the harbor is small. The Union Fish Co. has a 
large station here, and vessels can lie alongside the dock at all stages 
of the tide, large ones usually resting easily in the mud at low tide. 
Johnsons Harbor, where there is another station of the same com- 
pany, can be entered at any stage of the tide, the entrance being 
unusually free from obstructions, but the harbor is so shoal through- 
out the greater portion that the vessel anchorage is largely restricted 
to the western part, a little inside the entrance. Farther to the west- 
ward are Moffets Cove and Company Harbor, on both of which are 
shore stations of the Alaska Codfish Co., and which are available to 
all cod-fishing vessels at high tide. 



18 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

When fishing on this bank the larger vessels generally ride out 
storms. When the vessel begins to drag the anchor is usually buoyed 
and the vessel either puts to sea or goes to Caton Harbor. 

Between Sannak Bank and the beginning of the Shumagin Bank 
to the eastward lies a large area of comparatively shoal water, over 
the greater part of which cod are to be found in varying abundance, 
although this ground is not much frequented, owing to the absence 
of convenient safe harbors in its western half, and the presence of 
the dangerous Sandman Reefs to the northwest. In the eastern 
portion vessels can easily find shelter among the Shumagin Islands. 
A few vessels occasionally fish for a short portion of the season in 
this region. This area shows depths of 38 to 74 fathoms and is, 
roughly, about 1,800 square miles in extent. The bottom is ex- 
ceedingly variable, consisting in different places of sand, mud, peb- 
bles, gravel, and rocks, the latter occurring only near Sannak Bank 
on the one side and near the Shumagin Islands on the other. 

Shumagin Bank. — Shumagin Bank lies to the south and southeast 
of the Shumagin Islands, with its outer margin following approxi- 
mately the trend of the coast line formed by the adjacent islands. 
On the westward the bank has been traced to about longitude 159° 
52' west, but undoubtedly extends farther in this direction. East of 
the Shumagin Islands it reaches north to the latitude of the upper 
end of Big Koniuji Island. Its width within the 100- fathom curve 
to the south of the group varies from 15 to 35 miles to the nearest 
outlying island, while its area has been estimated at about 1,800 
square miles. The depths over a large part of the bank are less than 
50 fathoms, the bank not being separated from the islands by deep 
water. The character of the bottom on the bank varies greatly, sand, 
pebbles, gravel, broken shells, mud, and rocks being found in dif- 
ferent places. Rocky patches are of frequent occurrence, even in 
comparatively deep water. These rocky patches are a grave source 
of danger to vessels anchored on the bank, as they chafe and break 
rope cables. The schooner Vega fished on this bank, to the south of 
Simeonofski Island, in 1913 and 1914, and was compelled to use a 
couple of shots of chain next to the anchor in the latter year, having 
lost an anchor the previous year because a rope cable was employed. 
Owing to this danger and the strong tides, few vessels have ever 
made a practice of fishing on this bank, although the fish rank in 
quality next to those caught on the Sannak Bank. 

The area between the Shumagin Islands and Kodiak is very im- 
perfectly known, largely because the fishing vessels do not frequent 
it, preferring to visit the better-known banks. The Albatross (in 
1888) ran a single series of soundings across this wide area, with a 
double line extending from the neighborhood of Lighthouse Rocks 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 19 

to Mitrofania Bay. These showed on the single-line depths of 26 
to 137 fathoms, while the double line showed depths of 44 to 73 
fathoms. 

Albatross Bank. — This bank lies off the southeastern side of Kodiak 
Island and extends the entire length of that island as well as in front 
of the Trinity Islands. At the eastern end it is practically continu- 
ous with Portlock Bank. Along some portions of the coast, as in 
the neighborhood of Sitkalidak Island, the bank is separated from 
the land by comparatively deep water, while in other places shoal 
water intervenes. The 100-f athom curve is distant 25 to 45 miles from 
the land, inside of which limit there is an estimated area of 3,700 
square miles. Depths from 40 to 60 fathoms are most common on 
the bank. Beyond the 100-fathom line the slope is very abrupt. All 
varieties of bottoms occur, sand being most prevalent, and rocky 
patches common. 

Prof. George Davidson, one of the earliest investigators of the 
fishing banks off this portion of the Alaska coast, predicted the exist- 
ence of this bank upon the evidence of a few isolated soundings. The 
bank was later named after the Albatross, which surveyed it. 

In the early years of this industry this bank was frequented by 
small vessels with headquarters at Kodiak, but as most of the fish 
taken are smaller than on the other offshore banks, it has not been 
much resorted to in recent years. 

Portlock Bank.— Portlock Bank extends northeastward from Ko- 
diak Island to about longitude 148° 30' west, a distance of 110 to 
120 miles, and is widest at the western end. Its outline, as indicated 
by the 100-fathom curve, is irregular. It is the largest single bank 
south of the Alaska Peninsula, its area inside of the 100-fathom curve 
being about 6,800 square miles. The boundaries of this bank have 
not been conclusively established as yet, and it may eventually turn 
out to be much larger than supposed. No soundings were made by 
the Albatross nearer than 16 miles south of the Kenai Peninsula. 
Between longitudes 150° and 151° west the bank abruptly narrows, 
and thence maintains a width of 35 to 45 miles to its eastern end. 
There is a broad indentation, with depths of 102 to 166 fathoms, on 
the southern side; depths of 105 to 122 fathoms occur just off the 
northern border, and 106 to 761 fathoms off the eastern end, close 
to the 100-fathom curve. 

The soundings made by the Albatross between longitude 150° west 
and the eastern end of the bank, inside of the 100-fathom line, show 
depths of 66 to 99 fathoms. Near the central part of the bank, 
between longitudes 150° and 151° west, two soundings of 37 fathoms 
occur, while on the southern part depths of 40 to 72 fathoms were 
found. Between longitudes 151° and 152° west, the latter marking 
approximately the western boundary of the bank and the coast line, 






20 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

the depths, according to the soundings of the Albatross, range from 
20 to 81 fathoms, the latter occurring near the land; but there were 
no indications of a marked or extensive depression between the bank 
and the shore. 

(nay sand prevails over most of the bottom, mixed with pebbles, 
gravel, and broken shells in places, with occasional patches of mud 
and some rocky spots on the western part of the bank. 

Tn 1888 the Albatross- made a single series of soundings between 
the eastern end of Portlock Bank and Middleton Island, which 
showed depths of 87 and 101 fathoms about midway between the 
two, indicating a small area surrounded by much deeper water. 

In 1911 the Albatross covered this same region more extensively 
in its search for halibut banks, but on neither occasion were cod 
found. 

During the latter investigations the region between Middleton Is- 
land and Dixon Entrance was covered by the Albatross, but only 
an occasional cod was found, and the work of the halibut vessels 
over this area indicates that cod are quite scarce. 

INSHORE BANKS. 

These banks are generally close to shore, usually around islands, 
and are the ones resorted to by the fishermen from shore stations ad- 
jacent, from whence the cured product is shipped to market, or by 
the natives and whites living close by, who catch enough for their 
immediate wants or cure a few for their food in winter. Observa- 
tions at a number of places show that cod caught close to the main- 
land shores are generally smaller than those found on the offshore 
and the island inshore banks. Practically no cod are taken for mar- 
ket on the inshore mainland banks. 

It was noticed that cod in a sick condition generally sought the 
shelter of the harbors. At Pirate Cove, in the Shumagins, and at 
Pavlof, on Sannak Island, the writer frequently noticed medium- 
sized cod in the harbors, and almost invariably these were found to 
be sick or diseased. A few yards outside the harbors only clean, 
healthy fish would be found, thus showing that their condition 
caused the diseased fish to seek the shelter of the harbor. 

There are a few small banks in southeast Alaska. These banks, 
which vary from 5 to 7 fathoms in depth, are mainly in Chatham 
Straits, Lynn ('anal, and Icy Straits. The fish are found on the 
banks in the summer, disappearing into the deeper water in the fall. 
The fish caught are comparatively small, examples more than 24 
inches in length being rare. 

Although cod are occasionally found near Sitka, Yakutat, in 
Prince William Sound, and Port Graham, near the lower end of the 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 21 

Kenai Peninsula, but few are ever taken by fishermen. At one time 
considerable cod were taken by the natives living on Kodiak, Afog- 
nak, and adjacent islands, but of late years the natives have devoted 
most of their time to the salmon fishery. The fact that the cod 
found on these banks are quite small has militated heavily against 
their sale in a dry-salted condition, in which trade only large fish 
are of much value. In 1909 the Alaska Commercial Co., at its Kodiak 
station, purchased from the native fishermen and dry-salted a con- 
siderable quantity of cod, but they were so small that they could be 
marketed in San Francisco only at a loss, with the result that the 
fishery was abandoned. If these small fish had been pickled they 
would have found a small but growing market for them in the coast 
States. 

In Chignik Bay cod are frequently found. At Mitrofania the 
natives cure considerable quantities for their own use, while in 1912 
some stockfish was prepared by a number of the natives. In 1912 
the writer investigated the ground off Ivanof Bay. Good, large cod 
are to be found here, but the vessels have never found it necessary 
to resort to this ground, while a shore station could not operate, as, 
should the wind from the ocean suddenly shift to the land, a dory 
would be blown straight out to sea. A vessel would find Kupreanof 
Harbor a very safe and convenient refuge. 

On Herendeen Island, on Northwest Harbor, a small island to the 
northward of Little Koniuji Island, are located two shore stations, 
which are operated during the winter and spring months; during 
the last two seasons with but indifferent success. During the summer 
months the cod are mostly on the offshore banks, too far away for 
the dories to operate. Several vessels have operated with marked 
success on this offshore bank, which is really a prolongation of 
Shumagin Bank, but as the bottom is rocky anchors are frequently 
lost. 

In the Shumagin and Sannak Groups shore stations to operate 
on the inshore banks have reached their greatest development. 

In the Shumagins these banks are very numerous, spots where cod 
can not be taken at some time during the year being exceedingly 
infrequent. The best-known banks are in West Nagai Strait and 
Gorman Strait. The majority of the Shumagin Island stations are 
on the former sheet of water, it forming practically one continuous 
bank. On the western side fishing is carried on throughout the year, 
while on the eastern side fishing is generally begun in May and 
ended in August — June and July being the best months. The sta- 
tions on the western side find the cod most abundant from March 
to October, the former month being the best. It is probable that 
they are just as abundant during the rest ol the year, but the weather 
generally prevents much fishing. A considerable part of this bank, 



22 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

lying throughout the middle of the strait, has been but little fished, 
as the dories could not work that far from shore. During the last 
two years, however, the number of power fishing boats has been con- 
siderably increased, and as these are enabled to go much farther from 
shore than the dories which are propelled by oars or sails, the middle 
ground is being worked more thoroughly. Occasionally the smaller 
vessels, with headquarters at the stations, have frequented the outer 
banks in West Nagai Strait. Around the Haystacks is an especially 
good fishing ground for a power fishing vessel. This ground runs 
from the pinnacle off East Head and the eastern point of Porpoise 
Harbor north to the southeast end of Andronica Island ; is also said 
to extend toward Wedge Cape, at the upper end of Nagai Island. 
The bottom on this ground is smooth, and is composed of fine hard 
gravel; depth of water about 30 fathoms. The strong tide and the 
proximity of the numerous small islets forming part of the group 
make a power vessel necessary. 

Should otter trawling ever be adopted for codfishing, West Nagai 
Strait would be one of the most favorable spots in all Alaska for 
its operation, as it has a comparatively smooth sandy bottom with 
depths throughout the greater portion from 25 to 40 fathoms. 

Pirate Cove, the oldest shore-fishing station operated in Alaska, 
is located on the northeast point of Popof Island. The grounds 
frequented by the fishermen of this place lie in Gorman Strait, be- 
tween Popof and Korovin Islands, and along the eastern side of the 
island as far south as Popof Head. 

In Unga Strait an inshore bank begins at Gull Island in 40 
fathoms, and runs west to Bay Point (known locally as Niggerhead). 
The bank is about a mile offshore and is about a mile in width, with 
a depth of about 30 fathoms nearly everywhere. Bottom is of 
packed sand with very little moss. 

In Portage Bay (now known as Balboa Bay) is a small bank upon 
which large fish may be taken during the summer months. The 
bank runs up the middle of the bay to the 5-fathom sounding. The 
soundings on the bank run from 25 to 35 fathoms. The bottom is of 
gravel, with numerous holes. 

In Beaver Bay, along the Peninsula, good fishing may be had. 
The bottom here is sandy and the depth averages about 25 fathoms. 

On the northern, eastern, and western shores of the Sannak Islands 
are to be found inshore banks on which cod are to be found through- 
out the late fall and winter, but the fish are in too deep water for 
the station fishermen throughout the rest of the year. On the 
northern side are four shore stations. Owing to the danger of the 
fishermen being blown to sea in the gales which spring up very sud- 
denly in this region, no shore stations have been established on the 
south side. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 23 

Along the shore of Unimak Island, from Cape Pankof to Cape 
Lutke, codfish used to be quite numerous during the summer months. 
This ground is really the inshore portion of Davidson Bank. At 
Dora Harbor, on the south side of Ikatan Peninsula, Unimak Island, 
are located two shore stations, and the fishermen from these fish out 
around Bird Island. For a year or two after the stations were 
opened they made big catches, but after that they dwindled until 
about 50,000 fish now represent the combined catches. Several 
schooners usually fish on the main ground a few miles offshore dur- 
ing the spring months, off Cape Pankof being a favorite spot. 

Just off Akutan Harbor, on Akutan Bay, cod are said to be 
abundant. While the schooner Vega, of Seattle, was taking aboard 
water in the harbor late in June, 1911, her fishermen, hand-lining 
from dories around the mouth of the harbor, caught 1,500 cod on 
one day and 2,700 the day following. The Albatross investigations 
in the same year showed that cod were abundant and quite large 
close inshore off North Head, Akutan Island. 

The Albatross investigations showed that cod were abundant di- 
rectly off Chernoffsky Bay, on the Bering Sea side of Unalaska 
Island, during the summer, and it is very probable that investiga- 
tion will some day disclose many other inshore banks at various 
places along the Aleutian Islands where cod can be caught at all or 
some seasons of the year. 

But little is known of the inshore banks on the north side of the 
Alaska Peninsula, mainly because, owing to the lack of safe and 
convenient harbors adjacent to the banks, shore stations can not be 
operated. 

BANKS ON THE ASIATIC SHORE. 

But little is known of the extent of the cod banks along the Sibe- 
rian coast, as no detailed or even sectional surveys have been made of 
them. Our own vessels have done more toward showing their extent 
and productiveness than those of any other nation. The principal 
banks lie in the Okhotsk Sea and the Asiatic side of Bering Sea. 
How far north the fish range is still undetermined, but it is probable 
that they will be found about as far north on the Asiatic shore of 
Bering Sea as they are on the American shore; that is, to St. Law- 
rence Island. They are said to be found as far south as Chosen 
(Korea) and northern Japan. 

HISTORY OF THE PACIFIC CODFISHERY. 

The history of the Pacific codfishery is a record of the strenuous 
struggle of a few individuals and companies against its giant brother 
on the Atlantic coast, which, backed by gieat wealth, the prestige 
and advantage gained by years of unopposed command of the Amer- 



; 



24 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

ican markets, an almost unlimited supply of raw product, and du: 
ing the last two seasons the ability to import from the eastern Pro 
inces of Canada large supplies free of all duty, has had an immens 
advantage over its younger and weaker brother. On this coast i 
has not been a question of being able to secure cargoes, but has bee 
one of finding a market for the catch ; a vastly greater catch couL 
be made were a market available for it. 

The fact of the presence of cod in Alaskan waters has long beei 
known. In the speech of Hon. Charles Sumner, a on the cession o 
Russian America to the United States, and which had such a power 
ful effect in favor of the treaty of cession then pending, is an ab 
stract of the references made by early navigators and visitors ii 
Alaska to its fishes. The first mention was made by a Russiar 
navigator in 1765, who reported " cod, perch, pilchards, smelts," a* 
being found around the Fox Islands. Other navigators and ex- 
plorers who reported the presence of cod were Cook (1786), Port- 
lock (1787), Meares, Billings (1792), Langsdorf (1804), Sutke, and 
Sir George Simpson (1841), all of whom speak of it as being a very 
common fish. But little use was made of it, however, owing to the 
abundance of salmon. 

It is reported that in 1866 two or three small schooners fitted out' 
at Victoria, British Columbia, and fished with fair success on the 
grounds immediately north of the Nass River. It is a question 
whether this fish was the true cod or one of the several unrelated 
species which bear the common name of cod. 

Capt. Matthew Turner seems to have been the pioneer in the dis- 
covery of the commercial possibilities of the great cod banks of the 
Pacific Ocean. Mr. W. A. Wilcox, late field agent of the now United 
States Bureau of Fisheries, received from the late Capt. Turner the 
following facts in connection with his discovery of various banks 
and his exploitation of same : & 

In 1857 Capt. Matthew Turner, master of the brig Timandra, 120 tons, sailed 
from San Francisco with an assorted cargo for Nicolaevsk on the Amoor River. 
He was detained, however, for three weeks at Castor Bay, at the head of 
the Gulf of Tartary, because the Amoor River was full of ice when he 
reached the Asiatic coast. While the vessel lay there waiting, anchored in 3 
fathoms of water, the crew began fishing over the rail with hand lines simply 
as a pastime.. They were surprised to find plenty of cod, averaging about 2 
feet in length. Capt. Turner had not previously seen codfish, but some of his 
crew were familiar with the species, and he, knowing their market value at 
San Francisco, appreciated the importance of the discovery and became inter- 
ested in the fishing. Two years later Capt. Turner made another trip to the 

° Speech of Hon. Charles Sumner, of Massachusetts, on the cession of Russian America 
to the United States, 48 p. Washington, 1867. 

6 Report on the fisheries of the Pacific coast of the United States, hy J. W. Collins. 
Report of United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 1888, p. 92, 93. 
Washington, 1892. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 25 

Amoor River. Reaching Sakhalin Island, off the Gulf of Tartary, he began 
fishing for cod and found them very abundant. Only enough were taken for 
ship's use, however, for he was not provided with the means to cure more. 

In 1863 Capt. Turner once more sailed in the Timandra to Amoor River. 
But this time he went prepared to catch and cure some cod on his return 
voyage. Besides fishing gear he carried 25 tons of salt. Returning he stopped 
to fish at the Gulf of Tartary. Cod were plentiful at first, and 10 tons were 
taken in a few days and salted in kench. But suddenly the fish disappeared 
and none could be caught. Then the brig ran down the coast to southern 
Kamchatka, where fish were found in abundance, and excellent success was 
met with on the first day. The vessel lay near the rocky coast, and on the 
second day, during the prevalence of a dense fog, both anchors were lost. This 
mishap compelled Capt. Turner to abandon fishing and to leave the coast; 
he reluctantly sailed for home. His fish sold at San Francisco for 15 cents 
per pound, and his voyage would have been notably profitable if the loss of 
anchors had not interfered with obtaining a full fare. This was the first 
occasion that salt cod were landed on the west coast from Pacific fishing 
grounds. 

In 1864 Capt. Turner sailed in his brig on a cod-fishing voyage. Thus the 
Timandra was the first vessel to engage in this industry from Pacific ports. 
On the same grounds visited the previous year a fare of 100 tons of codfish was 
obtained and the voyage was remunerative. The same year the schooner 
Alert made a trip to Bristol Bay, Alaska, in pursuit of cod. Her voyage proved 
a failure, for she took only 9 tons of fish. 

Capt. Turner states that since he made his voyages to the Gulf of Tartary, 
as related above, no American vessels have gone there to fish for cod. His 
success, however, had a very decided effect upon the cod-fishing business in 
the North Pacific, and in 1865 six vessels sailed from San Francisco to the 
Okhotsk Sea in pursuit of cod. These were the first American vessels to visit 
that region on cod-fishing trips, and their sailing evidenced a resolution to 
begin the business upon a broad commercial basis. 

But Capt. Turner, who seems to have possessed the spirit and enterprise of a 
pioneer or discoverer, determined to look for cod-fishing grounds nearer home. 
Not disheartened by the ill success of the Alert in 1863, he sailed for Alaska 
on the schooner Porpoise, of 45 tons, March 27, 1865, and arrived at the Shu- 
magin Islands May 1. He began fishing the same day. Cod were abundant 
and close inshore. As a result, he returned to San Francisco on July 7 with a 
fare of 30 tons of fish — something less than a full cargo, which might easily 
have been secured, only for the desire to market the catch in advance of the 
arrival home of the vessels that had sailed to the fishing grounds on the Asiatic 
side of the Pacific. This was the first fare of cod from the Shumagin Islands, 
a locality since famous in the annals of the Pacific codfishery. 

The cod-fishing fleet of 1864 was composed wholly of rather small-sized 
schooners, most of which were originally built in New England for the Atlantic 
fisheries, but had sailed around Cape Horn to find employment in the business 
of the Occident. It is remarkable that one of those that crossed the Pacific, 
sailing about 5,000 miles from home, was only 20 tons, a mere boat in which 
to make such a voyage, and to return loaded " nearly decks to the water." 
Following are the names and tonnage (in round numbers) of the fleet: Equity, 
63 tons ; Flying Dart, 84 tons ; H. L. Rngglcs, 75 tons ; J. D. Sanborn, 71 tons ; 
Mary Cleveland, 91 tons ; Porpoise, 45 tons ; and m accon, 20 tons. 

The Okhotsk Sea fleet all secured full fares and returned in safety. The fish 
were small, averaging only about 3 pounds each when dry. But in those early 



26 PACIFIC COD PISHEKIES. 

days they were in demand and sold for from 12$ to 15 cents per pound, a prk 
that gave remunerative returns and the promise of future success for tr 
fishery. There was no lack of cod, and even with the method of fishing wit 
hand lines over the vessel's side then in vogue, no difficulty was experience 
in filling moderate-sized schooners in a reasonable time. 

The first vessel to visit Bering Sea for cod was the schooner Alerx 
from San Francisco, in 1864. But little is known of this vessel anc 
her owner or owners, but it is recorded that the venture was a failure 
as only 9 tons of cod were secured. 

The regular Bering Sea fishery was inaugurated by the schoonei 
Tropic Bird, owned by the McCollam Fishing & Trading Co., of Sar 
Francisco, in 1882. The schooner Isabel also visited the Bering Sea 
banks a few weeks later than the Tropic Bird. Both made good 
catches, and as a result the next year five vessels visited these banks. 

The schooner Minnie G. Atkins in 1867 discovered the Simeon- 
ofsky Bank, or what is now known as the Shumagin Bank. It was 
next visited by the schooner Shooting Star, formerly of Vinal Haven, 
Fox Island, Me., in 1870, and next by the Scotland and Amanda 
Ager. a 

The first fleet of any size to fish around the Shumagin Islands was 
in 1867 and consisted of three schooners, the Sanborn, Capt. Morse; 
the Porpoise, Capt. Turner; and the Sarah Louise, Capt. Holcomb. 
Most of the fish were caught off the western side of Nagai Island, on 
banks discovered the same season by these vessels. 

J. L. McDonald 6 has the following to say as to the influence of 

the discoveries of these prolific banks in the Gulf of Alaska upon the 

negotiations for the cession of Russian America to the United States : 

In January, 1866, the author, while attending the session of the legislature at 
Olympia, the capital of Washington Territory, determined to make another 
bold push for Alaska by soliciting the good offices of our Government for the 
purpose of obtaining a permanent foothold and to open the prolific fishing 
grounds in those regions to our ambitious fishermen. To this end we penned the 
following memorial : 

"To His Excellency Andeew Johnson, 

" President of the United States: 
" Your memorialists, the legislative assembly of Washington Territory, beg 
leave to show that vast quantities of cod, halibut, and salmon of excellent 
quality are found along the shores of Russian America. Your memorialists 
respectfully request your Excellency to obtain such rights and privileges of the 
Government of Russia as will enable our fishing vessels to visit the harbors and 
its possessions, to the end that fuel, water, and provisions may be obtained ; that 
our sick and disabled fishermen may obtain sanitary assistance, together with 
the privilege of taking and curing fish and repairing vessels in need of repairs. 
Your memorialists further request that the Secretary of the Treasury be 
instructed to forward to the collector of customs of this (Paget Sound) district, 
such fishing license, abstract journals, and log books as will enable our hardy 

° The Cod Fishery of Alaska, by Tarleton II. Bean. The Fisheries and Fishery Indus- 
tries of the United States, pt. n, sec. 5, vol. l, p. 213. Washington, 1887. 

6 Hidden Treasures, or Fisheries Around the Northwest Coast, by .T. L. McDonald, p. 11. 



' ma) 

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the 
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PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 27 

fishermen to obtain the bounties now paid to the fishermen in the Atlantic 
States. Your memorialists finally pray your Excellency to employ such ships as 
may be spared from the Pacific naval fleet in surveying the fishing banks known 
to navigators to exist from the Cortez Bank to Bering Strait." 

This memorial, written by a fisherman in behalf of the fishing industry on 
the northeast [west] coast, passed both branches of our Territorial legislature 
with commendable unanimity and dispatch. In forwarding a copy of the above- 
named memorial to the Secretary of State we imparted such information touch- 
ing the fisheries around the Russian possessions, and the impulse which the 
opening of those resources to our fishermen w r ould impart to the commercial 
development on the northwest coast. In acknowledging our humble services 
the illustrious Secretary assured us that " in consummating the recent pur- 
chase, I was strongly fortified by the letters which you wrote to me touching 
the valuable fisheries in those waters." The New York Times of April 1, 1S67 
(the acknowledged organ of Secretary Seward), said "that a memorial from 
the Territorial legislature of Washington Territory, dated January, 1866, 
asking the President to obtain certain rights for the fishermen, was the founda- 
tion of the present treaty." 

On the 18th of October, 1867, the transfer of this vast territory from Russia 
to the United States was officially consummated by the respective commis- 
sioners of the two Governments at Sitka, in the presence of the Russian popu- 
lation, who cheerfully welcomed the few Americans there also present. The 
union has been very cheerfully accepted by the people of the Territory. Our 
Government, on assuming possession, found numerous adventurers from the 
Pacific States domiciled in various parts of the Territory engaged in trade 
and in developing the resources in those regions ; vessels laden with ware 
entered every harbor ; stores were opened as by magic in every acceptable 
roadstead along the southern and western coasts ; an active competition for 
furs, oil, ivory, old copper, iron, and junk was earnestly inaugurated ; com- 
merce revived, the sails of our vessels whitened every creek, bay, and sound, 
and the staid Russians very soon obtained an insight into Yankee progress on 
the go-ahead principle. 

The acquisition of Alaska by the United States in 1867 proved an 
especial boon to our cod fishermen, as it secured them from any in- 
terference on the part of the Russians, who had not welcomed them 
very heartily in previous years. This is well shown by the fact that 
while the fleet in 1867 numbered 3 vessels, the fleet of 1868 comprised 
14 vessels. 

The first vessel to attempt to make two trips in one season was the 
schooner Porpoise, Capt. Caton, in 1868, but she got only half a fare 
on the second. 

The first Alaska vessel in the fishery was one owned by Capt. 
Haley, of Wrangell, who in 1879 visited the Hoocheno Bank, in 
Chatham Strait, southeast Alaska, and purchased his fare from 
aatives who claimed the exclusive right to engage in the fishery. 
These fishermen used bark lines, with wooden iron-pointed hooks, 
ind, as they considered a catch of 30 or 40 ^ish a good day's work, 
3apt. Haley had to wait quite a wnile before he could accumulate a 
targo. In later years several vessels engaged in the business along 
he same lines as Capt. Haley. 



28 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

An odd feature of the Pacific cod fisheries is that neither Port- 
land nor Astoria have ever had vessels engaged in it. In 1877 Capt. 
Joshua Slocum, with the schooner Pato (about 45 tons register), 
was at the Philippine Islands, when he conceived the idea of mak- 
ing a cod-fishing voyage to the Okhotsk Sea and marketing his catch 
at the islands. Leaving the islands in March, he proceeded to the 
Okhotsk via Yokohama. Salt and fishing gear were obtained from 
vassels met with in the sea, and a cargo of 23,000 fish was soon 
taken. When the time for sailing arrived the captain decided not 
to return to the islands, but took his fare to Portland instead, where 
he sold it at a profitable price. This was the only fare of cod to be 
landed at Portland. 

For the first few years of the fishery no suitable arrangements were 
in existence at San Francisco or elsewhere on the coast for curing the 
fish. In certain cases the fishermen received their share of the voyage 
in fish, which, after being cured in a good, bad, or indifferent manner 
by themselves, were hawked around the city. 

The late Thomas W. McCollam, of San Francisco, enjoys the dis- 
tinction of having been the first man on the Pacific coast to establish 
the industry on a permanent basis. In 1867 he bought his first cargo 
of cod, and the next year he bought and cured several cargoes at Old 
Sausalito, but as this locality was not satisfactory he soon after estab- 
lished a new station at the mouth of Redwood City Creek, about 30 
miles south of San Francisco. 

Having decided to engage directly in fishing himself, Mr. McCol- 
lam went east in 1868, and in New England purchased the fishing 
schooners Rippling Wave, Wild Gazelle, and Flying Mist. The 
first was lost on the passage in Magellan Strait; the others arrived 
safely and were immediately outfitted and sent north to the Shu- 
magin Islands for cod. In addition to handling his own fish he also 
continued to buy the cargoes from other vessels. 

In 1873 a partner was taken into the business and the firm was 
then known as Thomas W. McCollam & Co. In 1874 the schooner 
Alfred Adams was added to his little fleet, while the Flying Mist 
went sea-otter hunting on the Asiatic shore. 

In 1876 the firm again changed the location of its home curing 
station, removing to Pescada Landing, opposite Sausalito, on Eich- 
ardsons Bay, where its successor, the Union Fish Co., still carries 
on the business. In 1883 several new members were admitted into 
the firm and its name changed to the McCollam Fishing & Trad- 
ing Co. 

The first shore fishing station for cod in Alaska was established 
by this firm at Pirate Cove, Popof Island, in the Shumagin Group, 
in 1876, a more detailed description of which will be found in the 
chapter devoted to the history of the shore fishing stations in Alaska. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 29 

In 1893 the Pacific Marine Supply Co. was organized in San 
Francisco for the purpose of engaging in cod fishing and the carry- 
ing on of other business. The first published record we have of the 
company engaging in cod fishing was in 1896, when the former 
whaling schooner La Ninfa (also given as LaNympha) was outfitted 
and sent to Bering Sea. In 1904 the name was changed to the Alaska 
Codfish Co., and the business has been operated under this name 
since. In addition to a fleet of vessels the company also owns and 
operates a number of shore stations in Alaska. 

In 1898 a combination of several San Francisco firms operating in 
the cod fishery, notably the McCollam Fishing & Trading Co. and 
Lynde & Hough, was formed and the name Union Fish Co. was 
selected for the new company. 

From the very beginning San Francisco has occupied the premier 
position in the fishery, in fact, for many years it was the only place 
on the coast where cod vessels were outfitted. The industry fluctu- 
ated much and the changes in the personnel were frequent. The late 
Mr. Charles P. Overton, for many years before his death connected 
with the Union Fish Co., and one of the brightest men engaged in 
the industry, has written considerable upon the early history of 
the San Francisco fleet, and the author quotes from his Avritings as 
follows : 

While making a review of the past years in the codfish business, probably 
the most interest would lie in recalling the names of those who have been prom- 
inently identified with the industry. Considering the few years that the busi- 
ness has been carried on and the restricted nature of it, the list is a surprisingly 
[ong one, and is one that should be published as a record to be preserved among 
;he archives of the industry. 

First, there was Capt. Turner himself. Like most pioneers he did not make 
iiuch of a financial success of it and soon abandoned it to others. 

Sometime previous to 1870 Miller & Hall, the hay merchants, sent the brig 
T. B. Lunt two or three times. The fish were sold by Lynde & Hough, but the 
•eturns did not pay cost and interest and they dropped out. 

Andrew Crawford, the ship chandler and Tahiti trader, had a schooner in the 
•odfisheries previous to 1870. From 1870 to 1873 he operated the bark Legal 
Vender, Capt. Wentworth. At first there was a profit, but the last two years 
vere so unfavorable that Crawford withdrew from codfishing and turned his 
(ntire attention to the South Sea trade. 

Donald Beadle was one of the prominent figures " on the front " in the early 
lays having interests in the commission and shipping business, and in the old 
irm of Goodall & Perkins, and with Moss in some of the southern coast land- 
ngs. Like everybody else on the front he had his turn at the codfish fever 
nd was interested in the voyages of the Bernice, Kinau, and bark Union. At 
hat time the fish were all cured direct ex-vessel and so many spoiled before 
hey were sold that the losses were considerable. 

Capt. Wing, backed by the funds of his son-in-law, Bailey Sargent, of the 
anerican Exchange, bought the little bark Domingo, and the captain became a 
odfisher. With an occasional diversion to South Sea trading, he fished with 
aore or less regularity for five or six years, Sargent backing the ventures 
ntil the captain died, practically of old age. 



30 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

Col. C. L. Taylor dipped in as a venture about 33 years ago, and he still 
refers sadly to what it cost him for his experience. 

In 1874 and again in 1876 a Capt. Jacobsen sent the little schooner San 
Diego to the Choumagin Island grounds under Capt. Wentworth. Two voyages 
were enough ; then he sent her sealing. Explaining the change, he said : " Well, 
Capt. Wentworth is a goot mon, but he is too expensible." 

James J. Laflin, or, as everybody " on the front " knew him, Jimmy Laflin, 
a sailor boarding-house keeper, who would furnish a crew for any vessel " and 
no questions asked," operated the schooner Alaska in the codfisheries during 
the seasons of 1876-1879. The first two years the cargoes arrived on a bare 
market and the profits were good — good enough to induce such an increased 
catch by him and others as swamped the market, and after the two years of 
good business and then two years of correspondingly bad business, Jimmy 
diverted his vessel into other trade, and she was finally lost in the Bering Sea 
bringing down a company of Alameda mining men from Golovin Bay. 

Johnston & Veasey (1877-1879) were among the old-timers at it. They held 
on for three years. Veasey, later, drifted into a small produce business and 
died poor many years ago. Capt. Johnston got down to going to sea again on 
monthly wages and then drifted around the water front looking for a berth 
of some kind and finally disappeared. 

Another of the old-timers (1879-1884) was John Molloy, the junk and second- 
hand man of Clay Street, with the old brig Glencoe in the codfish business as a 
side issue. Like everything else that old John had, the vessel was poor, the 
salt was poor, and the fish were, of course, yellow or sour, dried up or slimy, 
but they went onto the market and helped damn Pacific codfish. Old John had a 
brother-in-law, a wealthy wholesale grocer, who furnished checks to keep him 
going. When the brother-in-law withdrew his support, old John went around 
town, bought everything he thought his credit would stand, and quietly went 
into bankruptcy — paying nothing on the dollar. He is dead and doubtless 
gone to his just reward. Any unkindness I may feel toward old John may 
possibly be because we were on the list of creditors when the end came. 

From 1882 to 1888 Ed. H. Hansen, of Wright & Bowne, and Capt. A. Ander- 
son, now of the Lewis, Anderson, Foard Co., with some others, operated the 
schooner Isabel, Capt. Nickerson, in this business. For the first two or three 
years they caught the market short and did so well that they added the brig 
W. H. Meyer. But about this time the production began to exceed the demand, 
and they soon had to drop out the brig. Business became so poor they did not 
keep the old Isabel in good repair, and in the spring of 1888, while on her way 
to the fishing banks, she opened up somewhere out at sea. As many of the 
crew as could do so got into the dories, and after suffering many privations 
about half of them were rescued more nearly dead than alive. This ended the 
venture, and the partners paid up their losses and quit. 

In 1883 Higgins & Collins, the wood and lumber men, with Wheeler Bros., 
small tugboat men, fitted out the schooner Bonanza on an eastern basis, import- 
ing eastern fishermen and eastern gear. They cured their fish on the deck of 
the vessel in Oakland Creek, and when they closed up their accounts each of 
the partners was an even $2,500 to the bad. That schooner Bonanza had an 
eventful and varied career. Built in 1875 as a yacht for William C. Ralston, 
the brilliant but unfortunate manager of the Bank of California, she has been 
freighter, trader, codnsherman, and finally as a whaler was crushed in the ice 
last year in the Arctic near Herschel Island. The story of her voyages to the 
remote and unfrequented waters of the North and South Pacific, the Behring 
Sea, and the Arctic Ocean would be worthy the pen of Robert Louis Stevenson. 

In 1886 James Madison and some of his associates fitted out the schooner 
Francis Alice, and also started a little station at Ikatok in Alaska. The fish 



PACIFIC COD FISHEEIES. 31 

were offered on the street by Frank Bates, a broker, but the trade was filled 
up by the old companies, and the fish found such slow sale that the whole 
cargo was bought in by this company at a very low price. We later took over 
the station, and the schooner and the business was entirely closed out. Like a 
butterfly, it lived but one summer. 

In 1894 a Capt. Jorgenson bought the condemned steamer Salinas, converted 
her into a three-masted schooner, rechristening her the Uranus, and sent her 
codfishing. He did fairly well for two years then, with the backing of the 
firms outfitting him, he added the W. F. Harriman, also a condemned hull 
refitted. At the end of the third year his whole outfit passed into the hands of 
those who had been backing him, and he was known in the codfish business no 
more. 

Young Duggan (1902) had a short and inglorious career as a codfish man, and 
some of the money that his father made in the shirt business went to pay what 
it cost the young man to listen to the siren song of the wily promoter. The 
schooner J. G. Wall went to the Bering Sea under the joint command of Capt. 
Dollard (the promoter) and Henderson (an experienced codfisher). We bought 
their season's catch, and it lasted us just three days. One season was enough 
for Mr. Duggan. 

Undoubtedly the most picturesque figure in the whole line was Nick Bichard. 
A native of the Isle of Jersey, a pioneer shipowner and merchant of San 
Francisco, he accumulated a fortune during the days of the Civil War and was 
early in the codfish business with quite a fleet of old vessels, both large and 
small, and for many years he was a prominent factor in the business. A large, 
swarthy man, erratic in speech and action, mixing codfish, coal, lumber, and 
junk, keeping most of his books in his head, he never knew what his cargoes 
cost him nor what they sold for. The codfish business absorbed more and 
more of his capital ; then his real estate, two fine water lots on Stuart Street, 
the gore lot at California and Market Streets, and other property went the 
same way ; the old vessels wore out and were lost and he finally died peace- 
fully in the night of heart failure, leaving barely enough to bury him. 

Chief among the old-timers and of those most largely interested and longest 
in the business was the firm of Lynde & Hough, two enterprising Yankees 
of the old school who started in Sacramento in pioneer days, came down to San 
Francisco, were in the commission business and, from selling codfish on com- 
mission, drifted into the cod-fishing business [in 1865] itself. They were for 
many years among the heaviest operators in codfish and, in addition, they dealt 
in all other kinds of salt fish, cornered the honey market, dipped into sealing in 
the Straits of Magellan, South Sea Island trading, fishing and trading stations 
in Alaska, salmon fishing, freighting, running a coasting passenger steamer, and 
anything else that promised a dollar, including "Okhotsk Sea Cod Liver Oil " 
and "Dr. Fisherman's Lotion for Man and Beast." They and their surviving 
partner, L. E. Noonan, were well and favorably known from Alaska to South 
America and from Hawaii to Australia and the Orient. Their last venture 
was codfish mixed with mining, and finally both of the senior partners died, 
leaving no money but various debts behind them. Their location at California 
City was sold to the United States Navy Department for a coaling station, and 
their vessels and cod-fishing business were merged into the Union Fish Co. 

L. E. Noonan was connected with the Lynde & Hough company for nearly 40 
years, at first as general factotum and handy-man-ready-for-anything. He ran 
the fish yard, outfitted the vessels, hired captains and crews, packed and re- 
packed salmon and mackerel, bought and sold on t e street. Later he acquired 
30079°— 16 3 



32 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

an interest in the firm and, being of a more thrifty disposition and not in- 
terested in the mining, he was enabled to retire with enough to permit him to 
take a well-earned rest. 

These epitaphs of those who have dropped into the business and then dropped 
out run in schools. Their course is something like this : The bright sun of pros- 
perity shines for a season or two upon the regular stand-bys in the business 
and it looks very attractive and inviting to some chaps with an old vessel or a 
little spare money. So they jump in and for a time cut a brilliant dash in the 
business. So bright are they that the sun of prosperity is all in eclipse and 
everyone in the trade walks in shadow. When they get tired of this or broke 
they drop out, and those who are left pick up the scattered ends of the trade, 
struggle out into the light again, and by and by there is some more prosperity 
and then a new crop of hopeful investors appears, and so on and on." 

One of the most picturesque figures in the industry, and one who 
cut a wide swath while in it, was Edward Pond. Beginning in 1902, 
with apparently no end of money, he sent two vessels to Bering 
Sea. In 1905 his fleet had increased to three vessels, two of which 
fished in the Okhotsk and one in the Bering Sea. Prices for fish 
were low in 1906 and 1907, and when the two vessels he had sent to 
the Okhotsk Sea in the latter year returned virtually empty, hav- 
ing been driven from the sea by the Russian authorities, he was 
forced to the wall, and his stock of fish on hand and to arrive was 
taken over by the Union Fish Co. 

In 1905 the Pacific States Trading Co. was organized at San 
Francisco. A home-curing station was built on Carquinez Strait, 
about 30 miles from San Francisco, and named Woodside Glen. 
The schooners Glen (121 tons) and John F. Miller (170 tons) were 
sent to Bering Sea. The company also built several shore stations 
in Alaska, as noted elsewhere. Later the company added the 
schooners Ottillie Fjord (247 tons) and the Dora Bluhm (315 tons) 
to its fishing fleet. On September 30, 1907, the schooner Glen was 
lost on Unimak Island, with the loss of one life. While the 
schooner John F. Miller was engaged in an attempt to salve the 
wrecked schooner a gale suddenly sprang up on January 8, 1908, 
and she was also driven ashore, 10 of her crew losing their lives. 
This disaster to two of its fleet, together with a heavy overproduc- 
tion in 1908 causing a slump in the market, compelled the company 
to cease operations for a season or two. In 1909 the company's 
schooner Ottillie Fjord was outfitted and sent north by the Union 
Fish Co. In 1910 all operations were suspended, but in 1911 the 
company resumed operations at its shore station in Northwest Har- 
bor, and also outfitted and sent north the schooner Ottillie Fjord, 
and operated continuously until early in 1916, when the company 
finally abandoned the business. 

° Pioneers in the Pacific Coast Codfish Industry, by C. P. Overton. Pacific Fisherman 
Annual, 1006, p. 70, 71, and 75* 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 33 

For a number of years the majority of the San Francisco vessels 
resorted to the Okhotsk Sea for their cargoes of cod, and in some 
seasons nearly all of the vessel fishing was prosecuted there. In 1892 
the Russian Government began to enforce a regulation imposing a 
license on all vessels fishing within 30 miles of shore, and from this 
time on the American vessels experienced alternate periods of harass- 
ment and quiet, according as the disposition of the Russian Governor 
was toward lax or rigorous enforcement of the regulation. A typical 
instance of such harassment is cited by Wilcox. a 

The three-mast schooner Hera, 369 net tonnage, of the San Francisco codfish 
fleet, was the only American vessel that fished in the Okhotsk Sea. Her catch 
was all made from 10 to 30 miles from the shore. While fishing, the vessel was 
boarded by a Russian officer, who ordered that fishing cease and that the vessel 
report at once to the governor of the district and there procure a license. The 
master. of the Hera denied that he was fishing in waters of Russia, as he was 
fully 10 miles from shore. The officer threatened to seize the vessel if his order 
was not obeyed. The master complied, and on reporting to the governor again 
protested as to his having any legal right or authority to interfere with him 
when fishing so far from land, no fishing having been attempted under 10 miles 
from shore. As before, a protest was not recognized, and $1,000 in gold was 
demanded for a license that must be procured before the vessel would be per- 
mitted to leave the port. A compromise was made by the master giving, under 
protest, his personal order for $1,000 on the owners of the vessel at San Fran- 
cisco. The vessel then returned to the fishing grounds, completed her cargo, 
and returned to San Francisco with a catch of 159,000 codfish, of a net weight 
of 685,140 pounds. The order given by the master was forwarded to the Russian 
consul at San Francisco for collection ; but the draft having been given under 
compulsion its payment was refused. 

In 1907 matters began to assume a serious aspect. That year the 
following vessels had visited the Okhotsk Sea: The schooner John 
D. Spreckles, the barkentines Fremont, City of Papeete, and S. IV. 
Castle. Shortly after the vessels arrived and began fishing the 
Russian gunboat Mandjur appeared, and an officer boarded the John 
D. SprecMes and S. N. Castle. Taking their papers, the commander 
ordered the vessels to quit fishing, claiming they were within the 
30-mile limit, and threatening to seize the vessels if they did not. 
As a result the vessels left the sea and returned to San Francisco 
almost empty. 

A few days later, on June 12, the gunboat met and boarded the 
Fremont and seized her papers, also. 

On June 19 the gunboat came alongside the City of Papeete, and 
the Russian commander seized her papers and ordered her to quit 
fishing. Capt. Stensland, the master of the City of Papeete, went 
aboard the Russian patrol boat and showed her commander a copy 
of an opinion written several years before by John Hay, while Sec- 



° Notes on the Fisheries of the Pacific Coast in 1805, by W. A. Wilcox. Report of 
United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 1896, p. 634, 635. (1898.) 



34 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

retary of State, to the effect that under international law the vessels 
of any nation had a right to fish at any point 3 miles or more off- 
shore. In anticipation of just such a happening this copy had been 
furnished to the master by A. Greenebaum, president of the Alaska 
Codfish Co., owners of the vessel. Secretary Hay's opinion seemed 
to have considerable influence with the officer, who at once steamed to 
the mainland to seek advice from his superior officers. On July 10 
he returned and restored the ship's papers to the master, admitting 
that the 30-mile limit for fishing was not to be enforced. 

On July 12 the Eussian gunboat steamed alongside the Fremont 
and restored not only her own papers but also those of the John D. 
Spreckles and S. N. Castle. 

In 1908 a fleet of three vessels fished in the Okhotsk Sea, while in 

1909 only the barkentine Fremont fished on these banks. The latter 
vessel's master reported a considerable fleet of Japanese vessels fish- 
ing there for cod. This was the last season in which American vessels 
visited the Okhotsk Sea for cod. 

In 1891 Capt. J. A. Matheson, of ProvincetoAvn, Mass., who had 
been engaged in the Atlantic codfishery for a number of years, sent 
his schooner Lizzie Colby around the Horn, coming himself b}^ rail 
and establishing himself at Anacortes, Wash., and sent his vessel to 
the Alaska banks, this being the first venture on the coast other than 
from San Francisco. In 1905 the schooner Fanny Dutard was added 
to his fleet. In 1906 the schooner Lizzie Colby dropped out. In 
1908 the schooner Harriet G. was purchased and it and the Fanny 
Dutard sent north. In 1909 the same fleet was sent north, but in 

1910 only the Fanny Dutard was outfitted. San Francisco parties, 
as noted elsewhere, purchased the plant and fleet in 1910, incorpo- 
rated it as the Matheson Fisheries Co., and installed Capt, Matheson 
as manager. In 1912 he dropped out altogether, but late in 1914 
purchased the fleet of the Matheson Fisheries Co. — the schooners 
Azalea and Fanny Dutard — and sent it north under his own name 
in 1915. 

The Puget Sound & Alaska Commercial Co. was the pioneer in the 
cod fishing industry from Seattle, Wash. It began operations in 
February, 1892, and on March 5 dispatched the schooner Moonlight, 
of 68 tons, to the Bering Sea banks. The vessel returned on August 
20 with 175,000 pounds of salt cod. No more is heard of the com pan; 
after this first venture. 

In 1896 Tracy H. Robertson organized the Oceanic Packing Co., 
with headquarters in Seattle, and outfitted and sent to Bering Sea 
the schooner Emma F. Harriman. She returned with a full cargo, 
but as the demand in the Northwest for cod was quite slack, the ves- 
sel was sent direct to San Francisco and the cargo sold there. 






PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 35 

In 1897 the company sent to Bering Sea the brigantine Blakeley 

and the schooner Swan. The vessels returned with full cargoes, and 

these were prepared for market at a plant the company had built in 

West Seattle. 

The Klondike rush had begun in 1897, and in 1898 the company 

became interested in the transportation business and diverted its ves- 
sels into this industry, in the course of which the schooner Swan was 
wrecked. In 1899 and 1900 the brigantine Blakeley was sent to the 
Bering Sea banks by the company, and returned each season with 
full cargoes. The business had not proved very profitable, however, 
and the company ceased operations in the latter year. 

In 1898 Mr. Fay, a Seattle lawyer, sent the schooner Lizzie S. Sor- 
renson (89 tons) to Bering Sea. She returned with a full cargo and 
the fish were worked up at a plant built at Richmond Beach. The 
venture could not have been very profitable, as only the one trip was 
made. The Lizzie S. Sorrenson was a comparatively small schooner 
and her chief title to fame rests upon the unusual fate she eventually 
met. In 1909 the Tyee Co., which then operated a shore whaling 
station at Tyee, southeast Alaska, purchased the schooner, which was 
thereupon fitted with a gasoline engine and turned into a whaler. 
On May 10, 1910, a whale was sighted in the ocean about 8 miles 
southwest of Cape Addington. The vessel was cautiously worked 
to within gunshot and a harpoon driven into the animal. The 
weapon failed to reach a vital spot, and after an effort to escape the 
gigantic mammal turned suddenly, and charging the vessel, struck 
her full in the stern. The impact knocked out a portion of the ves- 
sel's bottom and she sank in a few minutes. 

The Seattle- Alaska Fish Co. began business in Seattle in 1902, 
using for its home station the old West Seattle plant of the Oceanic 
Packing Co. The first year the schooner Carrier Dove was the only 
vessel outfitted, but in 1903 the schooner Nellie Colman was added. 
In 1906 the latter vessel was sold, her place being taken by the 
schooner Maid of Orleans. Only the Carrier Dove was outfitted in 
1907, but in 1908 she was sold and the Maid of Orleans outfitted. In 
1910 the company was absorbed by the King & Winge Codfish Co., of 
Seattle. 

In 1904 the late Mr. W. F. Robinson, who had been connected with 
the New England fisheries for a number of years, and others bought 
the schooner Alice and, under the name of the Schooner Alice Co. 
(Inc.), sent her north. In 1905 the corporate name was changed to 
L ,he Robinson Codfish Co., the schooner Joseph Russ purchased, and 
i large plant constructed at Anacortes, Wash. In 1911 the original 
Dlant was sold and another erected at once on the company's prop- 
erty in connection with a by-products plant vhich they owned. In 
L912 the name of the company was changed to the Robinson Fisheries 



36 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

Co. On April 20, 1912, the schooner Joseph Russ was lost on Chiri- 
koff Island, Alaska. In 1914 the schooner Wawona was purchased 
and the same year she brought home the largest trip of cod, 240,000 
fish weighing about 1,100,000 pounds, ever caught and landed from 
an American vessel. In 1915 she broke her 1914 record with a catch 
of 258,323 fish weighing approximately 1,150,000 pounds. 

In 1904 the late Andrew Webber, of Seattle, made a venture in the 
industry by sending to Bering Sea the little schooner Ida May, and 
repeated it the next season, after which he withdrew. 

In 1905 the King & Winge Codfish Co., composed principally of 
King & Winge, the well-known shipbuilders of Seattle, sent the 
schooner Harold Blehum (185 tons) to the Bering Sea banks, and 
continued doing so, adding the schooner Vega later, until 1910, when 
the company joined the consolidation known as the Western Codfish 
Co. The company had its home-curing station located in West 
Seattle. 

The Blom Codfish Co. was organized in Tacoma in 1905 and sent 
the schooner Falcon (195 tons) north, in the meantime building its 
home-curing station at Quartermaster Harbor. The company had 
a very checkered career, finally ceasing business in 1914, when its 
assets, including the schooner Fortuna, passed into the hands of 
Seattle parties, who organized the Northern Codfish Co. for the 
purpose of carrying on the business. The latter company sent the 
vessel north in 1915, but dropped out of the business early in 191 6 
the schooner being chartered to the Pacific Coast Codfish Co. 

The Pacific Coast Codfish Co. was formed in 1911 by former stock- 
holders of the Seattle-Alaska Fish Co., which had been sold to tin 
King & Winge Codfish Co. The company constructed a home 
curing station at Poulsbo the same year, and sent north the schoonei 
John A. In 1913 the schooner Chas. R. Wilson was added, and ii 
1914 the schooner Maid of Orleans, while in 1915 the schooner For 
tuna was chartered and adeled to the fleet. 

In 1910 T. Tilmann, jr., of the firm of Tilmann & Bendel, am 
other San Francisco parties, none of whom had heretofore beei 
engaged in the business, attempted to form a consolidation of th 
Puget Sound companies. A controlling interest was secured h 
the King & Winge Codfish Co., and this company then purchase* 
the Seattle- Alaska Fish Co. The two properties were then merge* 
under the name of the Western Codfish Co. The property of Capl 
J. A. Matheson was purchased and it was incorporated under th 
name of the Matheson Fisheries Co., with Capt. Matheson i 
charge of operations. In the meantime the Union Fish Co., of Sa 
Francisco purchased the cargoes of the schooners Joseph Russ, Alio 
and Fortuna, the two former belonging to the Robinson Fisheric 
Co. and the latter to the Blom Codfish Co. The Western Codfish C 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 830. 



Plate II. 




FIG. 1.— UNION FISH COMPANY'S PAVLOF STATION, SANNAK ISLAND, ALASKA. 




FIG. 2.— PIRATE COVE, THE PIONEER CODFISH STATION OF ALASKA. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 37 

had but a brief existence, dropping out of active fishing operations 
early in 1912, while in December, 1914, Capt. Matheson bought from 
the Matheson Fisheries Co. the schooners Fanny Dutard and Azalea 
and sent them north in 1915 under his own name. After disposing 
of its 1914 catch of cod the Matheson Fisheries Co. wound up its 
active career in the summer of 1915. 

The first Canadian company to engage in cod fishing on the 
Pacific banks was the Western Canadian Fish Co. This company 
built a home station at Barnet, British Columbia, in 1903, and sent 
the brigantine Blakeley to Bering Sea. The company struggled 
along until the latter part of 1905, when it went out of the business. 

In 1913 the Canadian Fish & Cold Storage Co., of Prince Rupert, 
British Columbia, outfitted the schooner Albert Meyer and sent her 
to the Bering Sea banks. She arrived there at almost the end of 
the fishing season, and as a result brought back but a few hundred 
fish. The vessel made another trip in 1914, when it met with fair 
success. As the market was very poor when she returned, the com- 
pany gave up this branch of its business. 

HISTORY OF ALASKA SHORE-FISHING STATIONS. 

The natives living in the vicinity of the great cod banks of Alaska 
have depended upon them for a considerable part of their food 
supply, although not to such an important extent as they have upon 
the salmon. When the Russians came more and more home use was 
made of cod, and the same is true of their Creole descendants to-day. 
With the exception of a few small shipments made from Kodiak in 
the early years of the industry, the catch of the natives and few 
whites living at other than the regular cod stations has all been 
consumed locally. 

The late Thomas W. McCollam, of the McCollam Fishing & Trad- 
ing Co., of San Francisco, was the first to perceive the advantages to 
be obtained from establishing stations close to the cod banks, where 
the fishermen could go out daily in dories to the adjacent banks and 
the catch be stored ashore until a cargo accumulated, when a vessel 
could be sent north to bring them to San Francisco. 

Early in the seventies a party of hunters had established a station 
at Pirate Cove, a very pretty and well-sheltered cove, with ample 
depth of water, at the north end of Popof Island, one of the Shu- 
magin Group. A wharf and several buildings had been constructed 
by the party. Mr. McCollam purchased this station and established 
here the first regular shore fishing station for cod in Alaska. 

An agent and about eight fishermen were stationed here during the 
early years of its existence. At first the fiVi were all kenched, but 
later on tanks were sent up and the fish held in pickle until shipped. 



38 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

The station gradually increased in size and importance, and to-day, 
as well as in the past, is the largest and most important one in 
Alaska. 

In 1886 a branch fishing station was established on Pavlof Har- 
bor, Sannak Island. In 1890 a station was opened at Kasatska, on 
the south side of Sannak Island, and was operated for several years, 
finally being abandoned because of the dangerous navigation for sail- 
ing vessels on that shore. The Port Stanley, Sannak Island, station 
was established in 1891, but was abandoned a few years later. All 
of these were what are known as " winter stations," that is, stations 
operated in what are known as the winter months in Alaska ; during 
the rest of the year the fish are too far out in the deep water for 
fishing with dories with the shore as the base. 

In 1892 a station w T as established on Sanborn Harbor, Nasrai 
Island, Shumagin Group, and this has been operated almost con- 
tinuously ever since. Fishing is carried on here from the middle of 
spring to late summer. 

In 1883 Ivan Petroff built a fishing station on Sitkalidak Island, 
close to the Indian village at Old Harbor, on the channel separating 
Sitkalidak from Kadiak Island, where for a time considerable quan- 
tities of cod were cured and shipped to San Francisco. 

In 1886 James Madison and associates, of San Francisco, fitted out 
the schooner Francis Alice, and also started a small station at Ikatak, 
on Unimak Island. The venture lived but one season, the station 
then being taken over by the McCollam Fishing & Trading Co. 

Lynde & Hough, a well-known San Francisco firm, early entered 
the codfish industry and for a number of years were important fac- 
tors in it. Besides a fleet of vessels the firm established a number of 
shore stations in Alaska. The earliest of their stations was at Sand 
Point, on Humboldt Harbor, Popof Island, in the Shumagin Group. 
This was in 1887. It was established principally as a trading and 
salmon fishing station, its relation to the codfish industry being 
mainly as a supply station where the firm's vessels could land their 
cargoes and refit for another trip without having to return to the 
home port for this purpose. 

The firm built a number of shore stations shortly after this — 
Unga Harbor (1888 or 1889) and Squaw Harbor (1889), on Unga 
Island; Henderson Island (1889), in the Shumagin Group; Com- 
pany Harbor (1889) and Nelson Island (1890), in the Sannak 
Islands; Chicago Bay (1890), Alaska Peninsula, and Ikatak (1890), 
on Unimak Island. Several of these had but an ephemeral exist- 
ence, as Chicago Bay, Nelson Island, and Henderson Island. 

About 1898 the McCollam Fishing & Trading Co. and Lynde 
& Hough formed the Union Fish Co. as a selling agency for 
their product. It was not until 1902 or 1903, however, after the 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 39 

death of both Lynde and Hough, that the two concerns were finally 
merged into one and the whole business operated under the name of 
the Union Fish Co. 

In 1876 Mr. A. Greenebaum, then and for a number of years sub- 
sequent, agent for the Alaska Commercial Co., built a trading sta- 
tion for the company at Acherk Harbor (later known as Company 
Harbor) on Sannak Island. A little codfishing was prosecuted at 
times, but it was not until 1896, when it became the property of the 
progenitors of the Alaska Codfish Co., that it was used for this 
business exclusively. In 1897 the company established another sta- 
tion on Moffet Cove, a few miles east of Company Harbor. 

In 1896 the Alaska Codfish Co. opened its Kelleys Rock station, 
situated about midway between Unga and Squaw Harbors. This, 
like the Unga station, is an all-the-year-round station and is by far 
the most productive one owned by the company. 

In 1906 the Alaska Codfish Co. bought the Alaska Commercial 
Co.'s station at the town of Unga, on Unga Island, and began fishing 
operations in the fall. The next year the Union Fish Co. built a 
station here, but on the opposite side of the harbor. Fishing is 
carried on here throughout the year. 

The present Squaw Harbor station of the Alaska Codfish Co. was 
first established as a salmon saltery by a man named Olsen, who also 
utilized it at times as a codfish station. In the summer of 1903 the 
present owners purchased it and have very much improved it since. 
It is a winter station. Its principal use to the company is as a supply 
depot for its near-by stations, the harbor being one of the safest 
in the Shumagins. 

The Dora Harbor, Unimak Island, stations of the Alaska Codfish 
Co. and the Union Fish Co. were established in 1897 and 1898, re- 
spectively. While they were quite productive the first two seasons, 
they have been steadily diminishing in importance ever since. The 
Sannak Island station men are transferred to these stations in the 
spring, after the cod have moved off into the deep water surrounding 
Sannak Island, and are brought back again in the fall when the fish 
have again returned to the shoal waters. 

About 1903 the Union Fish Co. built a station at Wedge Cape, 
Nagai Island, and operated it intermittently as a summer station 
until 1909, when it was abandoned. 

In 1903 the Union Fish Co. built a station at Eagle Flarbor, on 
Nagai Island, and operated it continuously up to and including 
1909, since when it has been shut down owing to the difficulty of 
securing enough men to work it. 

The first Puget Sound company to establish a shore station in 
Alaska was the Seattle & Alaska Fish Co., of Seattle, which built a 
station at Falmouth Harbor, on Nagai Island, in the spring of 1903. 



40 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

As this proved to be too far from the fishing grounds, the station 
was moved almost immediately to Squaw Harbor, on Unga Island. 
In place of the dories used at other stations, this company equipped 
the plant with Columbia River boats, two to four men going in each. 
The station was worked intermittently until 1910, when the company 
sold out to the King & Winge Codfish Co., which ultimately merged 
into the Western Codfish Co. It has not been operated since, owing 
mainly to its remoteness from the fishing grounds. It is now the 
property of John H. Nelson. 

In the fall of 1902, John H. Nelson and John Einmo opened a 
shore station at Hard Scratch, on Snug Harbor, Unga Island, but 
operated it only one winter. In the fall of 1911 R. H. Johnson estab- 
lished a shore station here and has operated it ever since. 

In the fall of 1905 the Blom Codfish Co., of Tacoma, Wash., built 
a station on the north shore of Eagle Harbor, Nagai Island, and 
operated it for a couple of years, when it w T as abandoned. 

In the fall of 1905 the Pacific States Trading Co., of San Fran- 
cisco, which had just recently started in business, established stations 
on Herencleen Island, Northwest Harbor, and at Ikatak, or Unimak 
Island, and operated them continuously until 1909. The latter sta- 
tion was not reopened, but operations were resumed at the former 
in the fall of 1911, and it was operated until early in 1916, when the 
company suspended operations and sold the station to the Union 
Fish Co. The Ikatak was a summer station, while the one at North- 
west Harbor is a winter station. 

In the summer of 1908 John H. Nelson, who had opened a station 
at Hard Scratch in 1902, started a station on Squaw Harbor and has 
operated it every year since. In the earlier years of its existence 
stockfish formed the bulk of the product, but during the last two 
years considerable dried salt cod has been prepared. 

In 1914 A. Komedal, a merchant of Unga, established a station 
near that town and has operated it during the greater part of the 
time since. 

In 1910 the Alaska Commercial Co. shipped to San Francisco 
aboard one of its regular trading vessels about 90 tons of cod which 
had been caught and cured by the natives of Kodiak. The fish 
proved to be quite small, and the company had so much difficulty in 
disposing of them that it did not repeat the experiment. 

One of the heaviest handicaps under which Alaska station owners 
suff?red for a number of years was the presence of saloons in close 
proximity to the more important stations. In 1913 there was one 
saloon at Sand Point (about 6 miles overland from Pirate Cove and 
about the same distance by water from four stations on Unga Island) 
and two at Unga ; at and within a radius of 4 miles by land from the 
latter town are six shore stations. As a result of the close proximity 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 830 



Plate III. 




FIG. 1.— A COD FISHERMAN'S HOME ON SANNAK ISLAND, ALASKA. 




FIG. 2.— THE TOWN OF UNGA, 



ALASKA, WITH THE ALASKA CODFISH COMPANY'S STATION IN 
THE FOREGROUND. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 41 

of the saloons to the stations it was a very easy matter for the men 
to get hold of all the liquor they wished, and carouses were frequent, 
lasting sometimes for weeks, as fresh supplies of liquor were con- 
tinually coming in. Frequently, also, a fisherman would meet with 
an untimely end through the capsizing of his dory while returning 
in an intoxicated condition from a visit to one of these saloons, or be 
frozen to death or meet with a fatal fall while traversing the rough 
and slightly marked trails between the stations and the towns. 
In 1914 the judicial authorities of the third district, in which the 
codfish industry is carried on, refused to renew the old licenses or 
grant any new ones, with the result that the district is now totally 
free of the legalized traffic at least. 

PERSONS EMPLOYED. 

With the exception of the owners, a few of the higher officials 
ashore, and several of the captains but a small fraction of those en- 
gaged in the industry are native-born Americans. The large ma- 
jority are of Scandinavian birth, with a few Finns, Germans, Cana- 
dians, etc. At the stations quite a few natives are employed as 
fishermen. No Orientals are employed except as cooks at the stations. 

The captains and mates of the vessels are almost all men who have 
worked up from the ranks of the fishermen. Operating on the cod- 
fish banks of Alaska requires considerable local knowledge of the 
banks, of the prevailing winds, and also of the most convenient spots 
for shelter and for water. While the majority of them are good 
navigators, a few are sadly deficient in this respect, yet their knowl- 
edge of Alaska conditions enable them to make about as many suc- 
cessful trips as their fellows who are better grounded in the science. 

The men in charge of the stations are generally fishermen who have 
worked up from the ranks. While some of these men are excellent 
workers, with considerable native shrewdness, yet as the necessities 
of the industry require their constant presence in Alaska, they get 
very little opportunity to keep in touch with the world's progress, 
and generally continue throughout their business life to carry on 
business in the same old groove in which it was running at the time 
responsibility fell upon them. They are also a very poorly remuner- 
ated class of men, with practically no opportunity for advancement 
beyond the position of station agent. This largely explains why the 
codfish industry of the Pacific coast is but little further advanced 
to-day, so far as methods of catching and curing the fish are con- 
cerned, than it was 40 years ago. 

While a small proportion of the white men are excellent fisher- 
men of the type required for hand-line lishing from dories, the 
majority of them are ordinary beach combers picked up on the 



42 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

water fronts of San Francisco and Seattle, or men of practically no 
acquaintance with the sea even, let alone any fishing knowledge. 
The reason for this is that the salmon and halibut fisheries offer 
more congenial employment to the more intelligent and progressive 
of the fishermen. At the end of the salmon season in Alaska quite a 
few of the better class go to the shore stations and work there until 
the opening of the salmon season the following spring, when they 
take up the salmon work once more. 

The natives generally are among the best of the station fishermen, 
as they are usually well acquainted with the locations of the many 
isolated spots which, while rich in cod, yet cover sometimes but a 
few feet or yards in extent and are difficult to find Avithout certain 
landmarks being well fixed in the mind. They are persistent and 
skillful fishermen and generally are among the high-line fishermen 
unless handicapped through age, disease, or bodily infirmity. They 
are very apt to quit when the whim seizes them, but the author's 
experience with cod fishermen generally is that both whites and 
natives are apt to quit on very slight or no provocation at all, the 
desire for a change of scene at frequent intervals seeming, in their 
eyes at least, to be one of the essentials of the industry. 

Quite a few of the white fishermen have married squaws, and for 
their accommodation the companies generally have small cottages or 
shacks scattered over the station grounds. 

The use of nicknames by fishermen in order to distinguish each 
other is very common, and in many instances it is difficult to find 
out the real name of a man without having recourse to the station 
or ship records, and even here the records frequently show the nick- 
name as part of his cognomen. These nicknames are derived in 
various ways, some being based upon the personal appearance or 
habits of the person so designated, while others are due to some 
incident connected with his life, still others to his place of birth, 
etc. Some are complimentary, while others are the reverse. Among 
the more prominent may be mentioned " Whiskey Jack," " Whiskey 
Bill'' (in the first instance the excessive indulgence in this fluid led 
to the imposition of the name, while in the latter instance constant 
preaching of the merits of temperance caused it), "Dirty Dick,'* 
" Gentleman Gust," " Growling Pete," " Gloomy Gus," " Halibut 
Pete," " Northwest Bill," " Rolling Gus," " Redwood Gus," " Russian 
Bill," " Contrary Gus," " Stavanger," etc. 

VESSELS AND BOATS. 

Fishing vessels. — Unlike the vessels used in the New England 
fisheries, there is no distinctive type employed in the Pacific cod 
fishery. Not a single vessel now used exclusively in fishing was built 
especially for the purpose. All of them- were at one time brigs, 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 830. 



Plate IV. 




FIG. I.— UNION FISH COMPANY'S SCHOONER "PIRATE," ALASKA STATION, FISHING 

AND WORKING BOAT. 




FIG. 2.— SCHOONER "MAID OF ORLEANS" AT ANCHOR ON SANNAK BANK IN THE 

NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 43 

barks, barkentines, and schooners employed in the carrying trade 
of the Pacific and purchased for use in the fishery after they had 
attained varying ages. As the schooner rig has proven the most 
economical the vessels have gradually been altered until all are now 
of this rig. They vary in length from 102 feet 6 inches to 156 feet, 
and the net tonnage ranges from 138 to 413. 

In Alaska a different type of vessel has been evolved. As the 
companies owning several stations frequently desired to transport 
goods and fish from station to station, small sailing vessels were 
employed in the early days. These were equipped with large cargo 
capacity and were vessels which had previously been used in Cali- 
fornia waters for various purposes. As the trips of these vessels 
were necessarily uncertain, owing to their dependence upon sails 
alone, it was soon seen that power vessels would be more profitable, 
and about 10 years ago the first vessels of this type were sent up 
under sail. In order to make them suitable for navigation under 
the trying conditions prevailing in this section of Alaska they 
were greatly altered, but even then proved far from satisfactory. 

In 1912 the Union Fish Co., of San Francisco, had built on Puget 
Sound the first power vessel constructed to be devoted exclusively 
to the codfish industry. It was a schooner-rigged vessel and named 
the Union Jack. The vessel was 85 feet long, 18 feet beam, with a 
net tonnage of 39 tons. She was fitted with an 80-horsepower gaso- 
line engine. As the owners had in view the using of this vessel part 
of the year in fishing also, they tried to adapt her for both purposes, 
with the result that she proved somewhat unsatisfactory for either, 
and was sold in 1913. 

In 1914 the same company built another power vessel, the Pirate, 
i to replace her. She is a two-masted schooner with knockabout rig 
and has a length over all of 64 feet 6 inches and a breadth of 21 
feet. The hold is 6 feet 10 inches deep and 23 feet long, which 
provides a carrying capacity of 100 tons. The after cabin has 
iccommodations for the captain and two men. The galley and mess 
room are also located here. The forecastle provides sleeping quarters 
for six men. The engine room is just forward of the pilot house, 
from which the main engine is controlled, thus permitting the cap- 
;ain to operate the engine as well as the vessel. The propelling 
nachinery consists of an 80-horsepower engine, while a 9-hon;e- 
)ower windlass is used for handling cargo. It is the company's 
)urpose to use this vessel in fishing during the summer months and 
n freighting in local waters the rest of the year. 

Transporting vessels. — For a number of years the companies oper- 
ting shore stations in Alaska have been utilising vessels of the same 
ype and size in fishing as in taking cargoes of supplies north to the 



44 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

stations and in bringing back the fish caught by the station fisher- 
men. Frequently the regular fishing vessels would be, and are still, 
sent north on this work during the winter season. As stormy 
weather with plenty of fog is the rule in the North Pacific Ocean, 
many of these vessels have met with an untimely end on the inhos- 
pitable shores in this region. 

In 1913 the Union Fish Co., of San Francisco, had built a power 
schooner for this work. This vessel, which was named the Golden 
State, has a length of 145 feet, a breadth of 32 feet, and a depth of 
11 feet 6 inches, and in addition to her engines is fully rigged as a 
three-masted baldheaded schooner. She has a carrying capacity of 
more than 500 tons. 

The propelling machinery consists of a 150-horsepower four-cylin- 
der distillate engine. It is connected to a two-bladed propeller 
through a disk clutch and spur-gear type of reverse. The two- 
bladed propeller is used in order that the blades may be placed in a 
vertical position when the sails are being used, and in this way the 
drag of an idle propeller is eliminated to a large extent. The en- 
gine is so equipped that it can be handled at slow speed with the 
ease characteristic of a steam installation. 

The vessel has also a complete electric lighting plant with dynamo 
and two sets of bilge pumps and a force or fire pump, all run off a 
countershaft, which is in turn run either from the main engine or, 
when that is not running, is driven by a 4-horsepower single-c}dmder 
engine installed in the engine room. Besides the quarters for its 
crew of 8 men, the vessel has cabin accommodations for 10 pas- 
sengers. 

I>oats. — A considerable proportion of the dories in use with the 
fishing vessels and at the shore stations in Alaska were manufac- 
tured in New England and brought to this coast overland. A few 
of the coast boat builders are now manufacturing them after the 
eastern model. The hand-line dories are usually 14 feejt long, bottom 
measurement. Occasionally trawl lines are employed, in which event 
larger dories must be used in order to accommodate the additional 
man needed and the extra amount of gear required. These large 
dories are usually 15 feet in length on the bottom. 

A few years ago one of the companies began the use of line trawls 
at its shore station and employed round-bottomed sailboats of the 
well-known Columbia River type in working them. The trawling 
experiment was soon abandoned and the boats either sold or put to 
other uses. 

During the season of 1914 the schooner Fortuna took north with 
her 12 portable engines suitable for attachment to the regular dories. 
These were sold to the fishermen and were to be paid for out of the 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 45 

season's catch. The use of these engines did not prove satisfactory 
:or a number of reasons, viz : The men generally knew nothing about 
heir operation and care and grossly neglected them; the weight of 
he motor cut down the number of fish the dory could carry, while 
n rough weather, with the motor going and a load of fish aboard, 
;he dory would ship heavy seas. 

Small gasoline launches are beginning to be a factor in the Alaska 
station fishing. Some of these are dories, some Columbia River type 
)f boats, while others are of nondescript types. Gasoline engines 
•anging from 2 to 12 horsepower have been installed in them. The 
;hief disadvantage in the use of these is that the regular hand-line 
ishermen operating from dories refuse generally to permit the op- 
erators of these power boats to join with them in dressing the catch, 
md as a result they have to have a separate dress house, and unless 
here are enough of them to form a regular dress gang they find 
he business of dressing the fish rather laborious. Two or more men 
generally go in the power boats, and as they are enabled to go with 
perfect safety to the outer and less-worked banks, their daily catch 
s much larger proportionately than that of the regular hand-liners. 
The use of power also gives them a considerable advantage over the 
regular dory men, as they can go out in weather which would compel 
he sail and row dory to remain in port, and can go much farther 
iway from the station and be sure of being able to get back again. 

The number of these boats is increasing yearly, and it is to be 
loped that they will continue to increase, as the owners of them 
ire amongst the most industrious of the fishermen — men who do 
lot waste all they make in riotous living, as is the custom with the 
7 ast majority of the fishermen. The larger companies have never 
ncouraged the use of power boats, as they feared that in time the 
aen operating them would become too independent and eventually 
iecome station owners themselves. 

Nearly every hand-line fisherman carries a sail in his dory. The 
nainsail is usually of the leg-of-mutton variety. Some have a jib, 
^hile a few also use a staysail. The sails are generally made from 
heeting, which is much lighter than canvas. Fishermen are ex- 
acted to furnish their own sails, together with the necessary mast 
nd boom. For a number of years the companies furnished the 
: len with these articles, but so many of them failed to turn them 
: a when paid off that they had to abandon the practice. 

LAY OF THE CREW. 

The methods followed in handling the catch and the lay of the 

< rew are radically different from those on the Atlantic cod vessels. 

< )n eastern vessels the men catch and dress the fish and divide their 
i bare of the proceeds equally. On Pacific vessels the fishermen have 



46 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

nothing to do with dressing the fish, this being done b} 7 one or twc 
dress gangs (the number depending upon the size of the vessel), thi 
members of which are paid monthly wages, which begin the moment 
they are signed on and ceases when the vessel returns to her home 
port. The fishermen are paid a certain sum (this varying with eacl 
man's known ability as a fisherman) per thousand fish. This price 
varies from $25 to $45 per thousand. Fish 28 inches and more ir 
length are count fish ; all under 28 inches in length count two for one 
All fish must be bled by having their throats cut as soon as caught. 

Under this arrangement the fishermen devote their entire working 
time to fishing, returning to the vessel only when a dory load has 
been obtained. In this way some of the fishermen will catch severa 
hundred fish a day when good weather prevails. As hand lining is 
almost universally employed but one man goes in a dory. 

A dress gang is composed of a splitter, header, throater, Salter 
a man to remove the black skin, and from one to three others, called 
u idlers," who pew the fish as may be needed. When two gangs an 
operating some of the idlers do double duty and thus reduce the 
total number in the dress gangs. All members of the dress gang, anci 
the cook, are encouraged to fish over the rail of the vessel, when nol 
otherwise engaged, and for all fish so caught are paid the same sun 
pei* thousand as the majority of the fishermen receive. 

The owners of the vessels furnish all provisions, fishing gear, boats 
and the bait taken along from the home port, the members of the 
crew not being required to furnish anything other than their cloth- 
ing and bedding. 

The captains of Puget Sound cod vessels receive as their lay fron 
$3 to $3.75 (about $3.50 being the average) per ton for the fish 
brought home. On the San Francisco vessels the captains are gen- 
erally engaged by the year and are paid a salary of about $150 pei 
month. 

The following represent the average monthly union wages paid 
the various members of the dress gangs: First Salter, $90; second 
Salter, $75; head splitter, $100; second splitter, $85; header, $35 
throater, $35; idlers, $30; salt passer, $30; cook, $100; and cook's 
helper, $30. This scale of wages was fixed by the fishermen's unior 
early in 1916 and is now in force. 

The great increase which has occurred of recent years in the re- 
turns received by the more important members of the crew is wel. 
exemplified when it is stated that in 1895 fishermen received $21 
per thousand fish; one Salter, $G5 per month; one splitter, $60; oik 
cook, $55 ; four men to throat, head, and do the other dress work 
$25 each per month. 

The following table shows the gross returns received by the tw< 
high-line fishermen of the principal vessels of the fleet, also the tota 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



47 



wages received by the splitter and Salter of each vessel during the 
season of 1913. The high-line man on the Chas. R. Wilson re- 
ceived the largest amount of money paid to the individual fisher- 
men, $753.05. The season of 1913 was not an exceptional one for 
this man, as he has exceeded this sum several times during the last 
10 years, and it would be a difficult matter to find a cod fisherman 
operating in eastern waters who earned as high an average return 
for a series of years as has this man. Of the dress gangs, the splitter 
of the Vega received the largest amount in wages, $633.55. The sec- 
ond splitter on the same vessel received exactly the same amount as 
the first splitter. Both were former Gloucester fishermen, and the 
season just closed here was the first for each of them. 



Schooner. 


First 
fisher- 
man . 


Seeond 
fisher- 
man . 


Splitter 


Salter. 


John A...... 


$428. 10 
753. 05 
337. 60 
580. 00 
666. 00 
362. 70 
352. 15 
585. 31 
419.32 


$388. 88 
464. 16 
325. 46 
556. 00 
590.00 
332. 30 
342. 80 
420. 96 
415..68 


$550. 55 
581.81 
540. 00 
560. 00 
550. 00 
633.55 
584. 05 
456. 00 
485. 46 


$542. 21 


Chas. R. Wilson 


600.71 


Alife 


513. 00 




500. 00 


Fanny Dutard 


550. 00 


Vesa ' 


522. 15 


Galilee 


562. 70 


W. H. Dimond . 


258.40 


City of Papette 


276. 28 







During the season of 1915 hand lines were used exclusively in fish- 
ing, but trawl lines, gill nets, and beam trawls have been used 
occasionally. 

The hand lines are of special hard laid no. 72 untarred cotton seine 
twine. These are 7-pound cotton lines; i. e., one dozen 25-fathom 
lines weigh 7 pounds. Two to three of these lines are required to 
make one single fishing line, and each fisherman operates at least two 
fishing lines. Each line is generally fitted with a spreader, to which 
are attached two snoods. The hooks in general use are the no. 8 
eyed japanned " Gravitation " and the no. 7 " Baylies." Most of the 
fishermen file down the long sharp point on the former hook. The 
leads weigh 5 pounds. No. 2 swivels are used in attaching the snoods. 

Unlike his east coast brother, the Pacific cod fisherman worries but 
little about bait. Before sailing enough herring are taken along for 
a couple of days' baiting, but the fisherman usually gets enough 
shack fish the first day to furnish him with plenty of bait for the 
next clay, and so on throughout the season. Sculpins, halibut, 
porgies, octopus, salmon, etc., form the principal sources of bait 
supply. In baiting the hooks the fish are slivered, steaks being cut 
from each side of the backbone. These are cut into three-cornered 
or square pieces, and are strung upon the hooks to the number of 
six to eight. Octopus is the favorite bait, a boat load of fish fre- 
quently being secured with pieces cut from one tentacle of this 
30079°— 16 4 



48 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

mollusk. Although clams are abundant in Alaska, the fishermen 
rarely ever bother to dig them for bait. 

SEASON, METHODS, ETC. 

The vessels generally leave their home ports between the middle 
of March and the middle of April, and arrive in the neighborhood of 
the Shumagin Islands, in the North Pacific, in from two to three 
weeks after sailing. The Shumagin Islands are approximately 1,553 
nautical miles from Seattle and approximately 1,903 nautical miles 
from San Francisco. 

As there is floating ice on the cod banks in Bering Sea at this time, 
most of the vessels fish off the southern side of Unimak Island. The 
early part of May some of the vessels move over to the southeast 
point of Sannak Island and spend the greater part of the season on 
the Sannak Bank, but the majority of them go into Bering Sea, 
where fishing is usually begun in Dublin Bay and on Slime Bank. 
Toward the latter part of June the Bering Sea fleet begins to work 
north onto Baird Bank, moving along by Port Moller and up as far 
as the mouth of the Ugashik River and occasionally, but not often, 
up into Bristol Bay proper. 

The vessels which fish exclusively in the North Pacific Ocean 
sometimes spend the early part of the season on Shumagin Bank, 
working later on the Sannak Bank. A few start fishing at Cape 
Pankof, off the southern side of Unimak Island, as stated above, and 
work thence onto Sannak Bank, where they finish the season. 

One great advantage the Pacific fisherman has over his Atlantic 
brother is that he does not lose any time because of enemies of the 
cod driving them off the banks, as is the case in the East, where 
vessels are sometimes tied up for weeks on account of dogfish. 
While the dogfish is to be found in Alaska waters, it is not in 
sufficient abundance to become a pest. 

All Pacific codfishing is done in the daytime. Owing to the high 
latitude of the banks and the fact that the vessel fishing season is 
the summer time, when the hours of daylight are most numerous, the 
hours of darkness rarely exceed four and are even less during June 
and July. 

Early in the morning the dories are put over the sides of the 
vessel, which has been anchored in a favorable spot. Each dory is 
equipped with the necessary fishing lines, a small sail, a water 
beaker, a windlass for hauling in the anchor, a 10 or 14 pound 
anchor, a small keg buoy, a knife for cutting bait and bleeding the 
fish, a gaff for handling the large fish and with which most of the 
fishermen stun or kill the fish by striking it on the head with the 
handle. 






PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 49 

But one man goes in a dory, and each rows away in search of a 
good place to fish. The direction in which they row from the vessel 
is, to a great extent, governed by the tide and force of the wind, the 
idea being to utilize the wind and tide to help in getting back to the 
ship when the dory, being full, would make rowing laborious. As 
the fish seem at times to be quite numerous in small, isolated areas, 
considerable luck enters into the fishing. When one of the fishermen 
is perceived to have good success his mates are apt to gather around 
and try their luck on the same spot. The men return to the vessel 
about noon, or sooner if a dory load has been obtained. After 
obtaining their dinner they go out again, and sometimes a trip will 
be made after supper. Each man's catch is counted as he pews them 
inboard upon his return to the vessels. 

While the fishermen are out on their first trip of the day the mem- 
bers of the dress gang are usually fishing over the rail of the vessel, 
and some of them do this whenever they have a feAV spare moments. 
These men are paid a fixed sum (usually an average of the prices 
paid the fishermen) for all fish so caught, which is in addition to 
their regular wages. 

Trawl lines. — But little trawling has ever been done by the vessels 
fishing on the Alaska banks, and none by those fishing on the 
Okhotsk banks. In 1888 the schooner Arago, belonging to Lynde & 
Hough, of San Franci^o, employed trawl lines on the Bering Sea 
banks, but the fishermen claimed that the fleas (amphipod crusta- 
ceans) devoured or injured the cod so badly that their use had to be 
ibandoned. 

But few efforts in this line were made by the vessels of the fleet 
intil in 1913, when the schooner Vega and the power schooner Union 
Tack, belonging to the Union Fish Co., of San Francisco, used trawl 
ines for a considerable part of the season. On the Vega, which 
iished on the outer banks off the Shumagin Islands, the ground line 
)f the trawl was of 20-pound tarred cotton. The gangings, which 
vere about 3 feet in length and set about 6 feet apart, were of 
5-pound, tarred cotton. The hooks used were of the 10/O japanned 
limerick brand. The trawls were coiled in tubs made by sawing 
)arrels into equal halves. Each dory crew was expected to have 
•igged up 42 trawls of 50 fathoms each, but under ordinary condi- 
ions would rarely ever have in the water at one time more than 14, 
>ne-half of the balance being baited and ready for use, while the 
est were held in reserve in case of emergencies. 

Around the edges of the top of the cabin of the vessel were nailed 
>oards. When ready for the first baiting the fishermen dumped the 
>ait onto the top of the cabin and then stood in the gangways and 
ut up the bait on the boards, and as fast as the hooks were baited 



50 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

the line was carefully coiled in a tub with the baited hooks in the 
center of the coil. Only one piece of bait, and that not a large one, 
is put on a hook. 

The buoy line used was of 6-thread manila. At the surface the 
ends were marked by 10-gallon buoy kegs, painted red, and attached 
to the buoy line by swivels similar to those used for this purpose by 
the halibut fishermen. On rough bottom the ground line would be 
buoyed up by glass balls attached at intervals. Twelve or fourteen 
pound anchors were attached at each end of the trawl. 

In the bow of each dory was fixed a roller working on a pivot, 
over which the ground line was hauled, in order to facilitate bringing 
it in. There are always two men in a dory when a vessel is trawling, 
one man to haul the line and shake the fish off, which he does by a 
dexterous twist of the wrist, while the second man baits the hooks 
and coils the gear in the tubs again. The men usually brought the 
trawl in when returning with the catch, but sometimes when the 
weather looked propitious the line would be underrun, the fish re- 
moved and new bait substituted, and allowed to fish again while 
the men took their catch aboard. Sometimes the trawl would be 
set out late in the evening and allowed to remain down until the men 
went out early in the morning. 

The trawls were handled in the same manner as on the Atlantic 
coast. In setting a trawl two men go in a dory, one to throw the 
trawl and the other to row the boat. Having arrived at the place 
where the set is to be made, a buoy is fastened to one end of the 
buoy line and thrown over the side, the buoy line allowed to run out 
until the end is readied, when it, together with the upper end of the 
trawl line, is bent to the ring of the anchor. The anchor is then low- 
ered over the side, and the trawl thrown from the tub until the lower 
end is reached ; it is then fastened to the upper end of the second tub 
of trawl, and so on until all of the tubs — two, three, or more — have 
been set. The last end of the trawl, together with the second buoy 
line, is bent to an anchor and thrown over the side, care being taken 
to prevent the buoy line from fouling with hooks of the trawl as it 
is thrown out. To the free end of the buoy line is attached the sec- 
ond buoy. The method of " underrunning " a trawl permits the re- 
moval of the fish from the hooks and rebaiting them in a single 
operation, thus saving a considerable amount of labor. " Underrun- 
ning" is sometimes performed on ground where fish are plentiful 
and the weather is suitable for such operation. A trawl intended 
to be " underrun " is set in the usual manner with slight variation. 
A becket is made in the buoy line about 10 or 12 fathoms below the 
buoy. In the becket is bent a small line which reaches to the bottom, 
and to the bottom end of this line is fastened a stone weighing about 
6 pounds. The ground line of the trawl, instead of being fastened 






PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 51 

to the ring of the anchor, is attached to the small line close to the 
stone. When thus set there is sufficient distance between the anchor 
on the buoy line and the stone on the small line to permit of the trawl 
being lifted without disturbing the anchor. In hauling, the buoy 
line is pulled up until the small line running to the anchor is reached, 
the stone is hauled up, and the end of the trawl is passed over the 
dory. One man unhooks the fish and the other baits the hooks. In 
this way the dory passes under the entire length of the trawl, the 
fish taken from it and the hooks baited in a single operation. The 
object of operating trawls in the manner described is for the purpose 
of keeping them in one position during the time fish are plentiful. 

On sandy bottom the fish are sometimes eaten by sand fleas, and 
to prevent this glass balls attached to the ground line at frequent 
intervals keep the fish clear of the bottom, where the fleas are most 
numerous. 

While the use of trawls by the Vega's crew was found to be quite 
successful, so far as catching fish was concerned, the difficulty of 
pairing off congenial fishermen and the finding of men who were 
familiar with the operation of trawl lines proved too much of a 
handicap, and in the latter part of the season hand-lining was 
resorted to. 

A very important advantage in the use of trawl lines is that the 
men will fish with them in much deeper water than they will with 
hand-lines. The largest and best cod are found in the deeper waters, 
and it is from these that the owners would like the bulk of the catch 
to come, but the men when hand- lining either refuse openly to work 
in the deeper waters, or else secretly neglect the fishing and bring in 
but few fish when the captain insists upon anchoring on the deeper 
portions of the banks. 

The experience of the Union Jack in trawling is described under 
the section devoted to shore stations. 

For some years trawl lines were in general use by the station 
fishermen, but were eventually given up because large quantities of 
gear and fish were lost through the men being unable to get out to 
the banks in stormy weather and because the fishing required more 
skill than was possessed by most of the green hands available. 

As the ground upon which they could fish was somewhat limited 
for trawl lines, the fishermen would first agree amongst themselves 
as to how the ground should be apportioned out. In setting the trawl 
line two men would go in a dory, but in fishing it the work would be 
done by one man, as the trawl would be allowed to remain on the 
ground for at least a week, and sometimes longer. Before setting the 
trawl the bottom would be carefully sounded with a hand line in 
order to be sure of getting the right spot for fishing. An anchor and 



52 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

line with buoy attached would first be dropped overboard, then the 
ground line would be paid out in such direction as had been agreed 
upon with the other fishermen, after which the other anchor and buoy 
line would be set. The ground line was left sufficiently slack that it 
could be hauled to the surface without disturbing the anchor, but not 
slack enough to permit of the line snarling. In fishing it the fisher- 
man would go to the leeward buoy, haul up the bight of the line 
until it lay across the bow of his dory, then by hauling on this 
line would pull the dory against the tide in the direction of the other 
anchor, the line passing across the bow of the dory so that the hooks 
which came in one side were freed from fish and rebaited and thrown 
over on the other side of the dory until the trawl had been com- 
pletely underlain or the dory filled with fish, when the line would be 
thrown off again and the trawl left set as before. The ground line of 
these trawls was 9-thread maniia, while the buoy lines were of 
6-thread maniia, commonly known as " dory rode." The gangings 
were of G-pound lines, i. e., 12 lines of 25 fathoms each weighed 6 
pounds. They were 22 inches in length and were attached to the 
ground line at intervals of 3 feet. The number of hooks used varied 
from 500 to something more than 1,000, according to the number of 
tubs set. 

During the season of 1913 the small power schooner Union Jack, 
which had its headquarters at the Pirate Cove station of the Union 
Fish Co., engaged in trawling on the inshore banks of the Shumagin 
Islands, mainly in West Nagai Strait. 

As it was the intention later in the season to use the Union Jock 
in gill-net fishing for cod from the deck of the vessel by means of 
a net lifter (described elsewhere in this report), the machine was 
placed on board at the beginning of the season with the hope that it 
could be used in hauling trawl lines. 

The process of tarring seemed to weaken the lines. Untarred lines 
were used for renewals and were found to be much stronger and 
more durable. 

Both 32 and 20 pound cotton tarred lines were used for ground 
line, while the gangings were of G-pound tarred lines. Experiment 
developed the fact that 20-pound lines were amply heavy and strong 
enough for the work and that untarred cotton lines were more 
durable and stronger than tarred lines, the tarring seeming to 
weaken the line. In the last experiments the gangings were each 
about 5 feet long and were attached about 6 feet apart, this being 
necessary owing to the high freeboard of the vessel. 

Only a couple of skates of gear were rigged for experimental use 
with the machine. After being baited these skates were coiled on 
movable plank platforms about 5 feet long by 2.1 feet wide. Placing 
one of these at the stern of the vessel, an experienced man could pay 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 830. 



Plate V. 




FIG. 1.— MACHINE USED FOR HAULING IN COD TRAWLS. 




FIG. 2.— COD TRAWL LINE HAULED BY MEANS OF NET LIFTER ON DECK OF VESSELS 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 53 

out the line by means of two short sticks (a method followed by the 
Norwegians) in order to prevent the possibility of the hooks catch- 
ing in a man's flesh or clothing, as fast as the vessel could steam. 
An anchor and buoy was at each end of the trawl and it was set with 
the tide. 

After being down a couple of hours the vessel came up to the lee- 
ward buoy in order to haul against the tide. The buoy was firs + 
hauled in by hand. The buoy line was then slipped under the fingers 
of the net lifter, the engine started up, and the line reeled in at full 
speed. When the anchor appeared the machine was stopped, the 
anchor lifted inboard by hand, and the end of the trawl placed under 
the fingers and the machine started again. Of the crew, one man 
ran the engine, one stood along the rail just aft of the machine with 
a long-handled gaff, ready to gaff cod which might break loose from 
the hooks, another stood just back of the machine itself and shook 
as many of the fish off the hooks as he could, while two other men 
removed and killed the balance of the fish and coiled down the trawl 
as it came from the machine, and attended to other work. 

The vessel used for the experiment was not well suited to the pur- 
pose, owing to its slow response to the rudder — a serious handicap, as 
it is necessary for the vessel to be kept well over the line at all times 
and thus relieve it as much as possible from strain — and the high free- 
board, owing to which a number of fish were lost because of their 
weight causing them to break loose while traversing this long dis- 
tance ; but despite this the experiment indicated clearly the value of 
the machine in hauling trawl lines from the deck of a suitable vessel. 

As experienced fishermen were not available for carrying on 
power trawling from the deck of the vessel, the crew trawled by hand 
from dories during the rest of the season and met with good success. 
In operating from dories the trawls were rigged in the same manner 
as on board the Vega. 

Gill netting. — In the summer of 1913 the author carried on some 
experiments in gill netting for cod in the waters adjacent to Pirate 
Cove, in the Shumagin Islands, Alaska. No originality is claimed 
for this method, as for a number of years gill netting for cod has 
been carried on in Ipswich Bay, Mass., and at a few other places 
along the New England coast, while about three years ago some of 
the Great Lakes fishermen visited Gloucester with their steam tugs 
and engaged in gill netting for cod, haddock, and pollock on a large 
scale. For a number of years the Great Lakes fishermen have carried 
on in those waters important gill-net fisheries for lake herring, trout, 
and whitefish. Steam tugs have been almost universally employed, 
and from 5 to 10 miles of netting set at one time. The use of this 
immense quantity of netting was made feasible by the employment 



54 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

of a patented power device, known as a net lifter, for hauling in 
the nets. 

The net lifter is a circular machine fitted along the outer rim with 
a number of fingers. The mechanism operating these fingers moves 
on tracks, and is so arranged that the fingers take hold as they come 
opposite the rail of the vessel and let go when they have completed 
about two- thirds of one complete revolution from the point where 
they first gripped. By this means the net is grasped by the fingers 
as it comes aboard, and after being carried about two-thirds of the 
way around is released and allowed to drop on the deck. A frame- 
work extends from the lifter outboard, and at the outer end is a 
roller, while a sheet-iron trough for the passage of the net and fish 
runs from the roller to and partly around the machine and rests upon 
the framework. The machine is operated either by a small gasoline 
engine or directly from the main engine. 

The net lifter is generally set on the port side, forward of the fore 
rigging, although it will work about as well when set on the star- 
board side, or when close aft of the fore rigging. 

At my instance the Union Fish Co., of San Francisco, with its usual 
progressiveness, purchased the necessary number of gill nets for an 
experiment on a moderate scale, a net lifter, and a four-horsepower 
Imperial engine to operate same. 

The gill nets were 125 yards long each and made of 12/3 cord 
linen. A specially made line was used for head, foot, and side lines. 
The nets w T ere of 7j-inch stretch mesh and were 15 meshes deep. 
The floats, which were made of white cedar, were 2 inches by 5 
inches, and had been soaked a number of times in boiling linseed oil 
in order to make them waterproof. Fifty of these were used to the 
net and were hung from the cork line and not strung on. The leads, 
which w r ere 3J inches long, with a diameter of thirteen-sixteenths 
inch, weighed 7 ounces each, were made to close on the line and not 
strung on, and were set opposite the floats. 

As the nets were primarily for use during the winter season, when 
the spawning cod are on the inshore banks, the work carried on dur- 
ing the summer was merely preliminary and mainly for the purpose 
of accustoming the men to their use. 

Boxes with flaring tops, so that they would nest, were constructed, 
and in these the nets were stoAved, with the lead line at one end and 
the cork line at the other; these boxes would hold about four nets 
each. 

When ready to set the boxes were arranged on the after deck, and 
as the vessel steamed along the anchor, buoy, and buoy line were 
thrown overboard, and the nets were then paid out by two men, one 
handling the cork line and the other the lead line. Another man 
bent on a new net when the previous one had almost run out. After 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 55 

all had been set they were held and marked by another anchor and 
buoy. The nets were set across the tide and as much as possible in 
the shape of a crescent. 

While most of them were set on the bottom, a few were elevated 
slightly by means of glass floats. Almost invariably, however, the 
nets raised above the bottom caught no fish. 

In hauling in the net a great deal depends upon the captain. In 
order not to put too much strain upon the nets or the machine, the 
vessel should be kept as nearly as possible over the former, and in 
certain kinds of weather and at certain stages of the tides this re- 
quires careful maneuvering on the part of the navigator. 

The nets were set out in the evening and were taken up at as early 
an hour in the morning as possible, as the flesh of the cod will dis- 
color if the fish are not bled soon after dying. Steaming up to the 
first buoy this was taken aboard. The buoy rope was then slipped 
under a couple of the raised fingers on the net lifter and the engine 
started. As soon as the fingers gripped the rope no further handling 
was necessary, except to coil it aft of the machine as it was reeled 
in at full speed. When the anchor appeared it was lifted aboard by 
hand and the head and foot lines of the net were then joined together, 
thus doubling the net over, and placed under the fingers and the 
engine started again. But few stops were necessary, and then only 
when a large skate would be found in the net, as the cod, halibut, and 
other fish passed along the trough around the machine without any 
trouble. A man with a gaff was stationed just aft of the machine, 
and his duty was to gaff all fish insufficiently meshed and apt to fall 
out of the net as it was lifted from the water. Other men received 
the net from the machine, shook out the fish, and stowed the former 
back in the net boxes. 

An odd feature of the experiment was the comparatively large 
number of halibut caught in the few nets set one day. In one haul 
with 10 nets 180 cod and 60 halibut were taken, the halibut ranging 
in weight from 5 to 30 pounds. No halibut were taken in the other 
trials with gill nets, while none at all were taken in the course of 
the trials with trawl lines. 

Ashore the nets were run onto large reels, and here they were dried 
and mended with a minimum of expense. The reels were so nicely 
adjusted that a child could turn one even when laden with four or 
five nets. 

When in regular use it is the intention to have the nets divided 
into three sets. One of these will be in the water, one will be aboard 
the vessel, while the other will be ashore. All mending and drying 
of nets will be done ashore, the fishermen having nothing to do with 
this part of the work. 



56 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

While the machine will work upon the codfish banks profitably, 
either with gill nets or line trawl, it is probable that the principal 
use of the machine in the near future will be in the salmon and hali- 
but fisheries of Alaska. With one of these machines placed upon the 
deck of a cannery tender a crew of not more than five or six men 
could set out and haul in from 5 to 10 miles of gill netting in a work- 
ing day, and do this in Aveather too rough for a Columbia River boat 
to live in. The gill nets at present in use could be changed at very 
little expense so as to work in the machine, and the work could be 
carried on much more cheaply than is the case under present condi- 
tions. With the use of a large power vessel gill netting could be 
carried on in the open bay or sea if the owner so desired. 

In the halibut fisheries the use of the lifter would permit of all the 
trawl fishing being done from the deck of the vessel, thus doing 
away with the dories, and with it fishing could be carried on except 
during the more violent storms. 

DRESSING THE FISH. 

As soon as enough fish have accumulated on the deck the dress 
gang begins its work. The " throater " seizes the fish by the head 
in the left hand, places the back on the edge of a table or tub, and 
by means of a short knife with pointed end makes a cut each side 
of the throat just behind the gills (the front of the throat has previ- 
ously been cut by the fisherman in order to bleed the fish) and an- 
other slit is made from the belly to the vent. The " header " then 
receives the fish, and, grasping the head and body, backward pres- 
sure is made across the edge of the table or tub, resulting in breaking 
off the head at the first vertebra. He then opens the belly with 
the left hand and tears out the viscera. It is then passed on to the 
" splitter," the most important member of the gang, who places the 
back of the fish against a cleat on a board and by means of a short, 
heavy knife, rounded at the end, and with the blade slightly curved 
flatwise, continues the split down the belly to near the end of the 
tail, care being taken to keep near the backbone. At about three- 
fifths of the distance from the neck to the tail the backbone is cut 
across, and is loosened so that he can catch the end in his fingers. 
Grasping this with his left hand he cuts under it toward the head 
of the fish and separates the upper part of the backbone from the 
fish. In this operation the knife blade is kept close to the back- 
bone to prevent loss of flesh, and a good splitter will drive the knife 
no deeper than is absolutely necessary, as otherwise the thick flesh 
at the back would be almost cut in two, thus spoiling the fish for 
middles. The sounds are not saved, and it is but rarely that the 
livers are saved on the vessels. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 57 

The fish are then passed to the " black skinner," who, with an old 
glove or a piece of bagging, rubs off the nape skins or membrane 
covering the napes, also any blood spots, and then drops the fish 
into a tub of salt water. Here the fish are soused around until 
thoroughly clean by the lesser members of the gang, who are called 
i idlers," when they are removed and passed through a chute into the 
hold, where the " salters " receive them. 

The salters lay the fish on their backs with napes and tails alter- 
nating, with the exception of the top layer, which is turned back 
up. A liberal sprinkling of salt is thrown over each layer, an 
especially heavy portion being put on where the fish come in contact 
with partitions or the sides of the vessel. The kenches are about 4 
feet deep and extend from side to side of the vessel and the full 
height of the hold. The first kench is usually started in the forward 
part of the hold and the Salter works toward the after part. As the 
kenches settle additional fish are placed on top to keep the com- 
partment full. 

A great deal depends upon the thoroughness with which the work 
of salting is done, as it is important that every part of the fish shall 
receive a share. If the salting is well done, it is not often that the 
fish need to be rekenched; but if the salt is used too sparingly or is 
unevenly applied, souring may start, which necessitates moving whole 
kenches and resalting. Sometimes the effort is made on the Atlantic 
coast to salt a little slack in order to make the fish«heavy on reaching 
port, with the result that the whole catch may be lost. Slack salting, 
owing to the length of the trips and the fact that the fishermen would 
not benefit because of the increased weight of the fish, is rarely ever 
attempted on this coast. As the fish lose their water from salting it 
runs to the bottom of the hold and is pumped out. About 21 sacks of 
salt (weighing 100 pounds each) are used to 1,000 fish when in kench. 

Soured fish have a peculiar odor, not very different from that of 
sauerkraut. Those accustomed to handling the fish become expert in 
recognizing this trouble and pick out the infected fish instantly. 

Much is said by the fishermen about the practice of dressing the 
cod on the banks and throwing the gurry overboard, claiming that 
the gurry decays on the bottom and the taint drives the fish away. 
As sand fleas (amphipod crustaceans) are very abundant on the in- 
shore and offshore banks, these scavengers, along with the sculpins 
and other bottom feeders, speedily remove every particle of edible 
meat from the gurry, thus removing every possibility of the water 
becoming polluted. At the various stations, should a couple of days' 
stormy weather prevent fishing, the sand fleas will be found to have 
almost caught up with the accumulation of gurry, while at the 
seasonal stations a month after the season closes the usual large pile 



58 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

of gurry has been reduced to a comparatively small heap of bones 
absolutely cleaned of all flesh. 

SHORE-STATION METHODS. 

The methods followed by the shore stations are somewhat different 
from those on board the vessels. 

The shore fishermen usually arise between 3 and 4 a. in. in summer 
and between 4 and 5 a. m. in winter. After getting breakfast the 
men row out to the near-by banks in their dories. From 9 to 12 they 
come straggling in with var}dng numbers of cod, the latter depend- 
ing somewhat upon luck, but mainly upon the knowledge on the 
part of the fisherman of the " good spots " and the persistency with 
which he fished. The dories in use will hold from 180 to 220 fish, 
the number depending upon their size. A dory with the greater 
number could be handled only in calm or fairky calm weather, as it 
would be so low in the water as to ship a sea at every lurch in rough 
weather. 

Upon reaching the station the fish are pewed by the fishermen from 
the dory into a box located on the side of the wharf and midway be- 
tween the top and low T water. From here the fish are peAved onto the 
dress-house floor (the dress house is either at the end of the wharf 
or midway of the same), the agent or his representative keeping the 
tally as the fish are thrown upon the floor. 

In the bunk hoftse is hung a board ruled so as to show the name 
of each fisherman and his catch from day to day, and as soon as all 
the boats are in the agent fills out on this board the catch of each man 
for that day, thus giving the men an opportunity to know just how 
they stand and to have any corrections made should the}^ be necessary. 

Dinner is at 12 o'clock, and shortly after the fishermen gather at 
the dress house and, dividing themselves into as many dress gangs 
as their numbers will permit, begin the work of dressing. No special 
dress gangs are employed at the stations, this work being considered 
a part of the fisherman's regular work. 

That portion of the dress gang in the dress house is generally 
composed of a " throater," " header," " splitter," a " black skinner," 
a man to go over the fish and remove adhering backbones, clots of 
blood, portions of black skin, etc., left by those who had previously 
handled it, and a man to pew the fish into the throater's box. The 
duties of these men are about the same as on the vessels. Each dress 
gang is equipped with a box set up on legs and with a sloping grid- 
iron bottom, so that water, slime, etc., will pass out through the 
bottom. In this box the fish are placed with their heads toward the 
throater. Alongside and attached to this box is a table. The header 
stands at the end next to the box, on the opposite side from the throater 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 830. 



Plate V!. 




FIG. 1.— LANDING THE DAY'S CATCH AT THE SHORE STATION. 




FIG. 2.— DORIES NESTED AND DRESS GANG FINISHING UP THE DAY'S CATCH. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 59 

and splitter, and has in front of him a piece of iron fastened to the 

o*e of the table, over which he breaks the backbone of the fish as they 
&A e passed to him. At the other end of the opposite side of the table 
stands the splitter. In front of him has been inserted in the top of 
the table a piece of wood about 15 inches long and about 10 inches 
wide. In this has been driven a sharpened nail, to which the fish 
are attached, so they will not slip away while he is splitting them, 
the board inset being for the purpose of obviating the necessity of 
renewing the whole top of the table after the splitter has cut and 
chopped here for a short time. 

There are usually two or three gangs at a station, and, in addition 
to the above, there are usually two men who trundle the dressed fish 
in large wheelbarrows to the butt fyouse, where two salters receive 
and salt them in the large tanks. 

During the summer months the livers of the cod are saved and 
dumped into large casks just outside the dress house, this work being 
done by the header. Here they are allowed to rot out. The oil grad- 
ually comes to the surface and at intervals is dipped out into barrels 
or drums. No attempt at present is made to prepare medicinal oil, 
although the Union Fish Co. has a plant for this purpose at the 
Pirate Cove station. As the healthy and diseased livers are used to- 
gether, only oil suitable for use in the arts is rendered at present. 

The offal passes through chutes into the water under the dress 
house, from whence it is either washed away, rots, or is devoured 
by gulls and sand fleas. At some stations the latter are so numerous 
that in a surprisingly short space of time the bones of the fish are 
polished clean. 

The salting houses are long, low structures, with but few windows, 
which leaves them usually in deep twilight. They are generally ar- 
ranged with two rows of square or round tanks, with a passageway 
between them for the wheelbarrows to pass in and out. The large 
square tanks hold about 4,000 medium-sized fish, while the large 
round ones hold about 3,000 medium-sized fish. These tanks are 
generally made of redwood staves or planks held together with 
metal hoops or bolted together with iron bolts. At a feAV places 
small hogsheads are employed. These receptacles frequently are in 

use for years. 

Before the dressing begins each Salter brings from the salt house 
about the number of bags of salt he expects to use. This is usually 
figured on the basis of 17 sacks (holding 100 pounds each) to 1,000 
fish. The quantity used varies, however, with the weather and the 
fatness of the fish. 

The fish are carefully placed in the butts in layers, face, or flesh, 
side up. Salt is sprinkled over each layer, care being used to see 



60 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

that every part of the fish is covered. The layers are carried from 
18 inches to 2 feet above the top of the butts, so as to allow for the 
settling which will occur as the water is drawn from the fish. No 
pickle is necessary on these fish, as they make their own. When the 
fish have settled below the top of the butt, which they will do in a 
few days, several layers of new fish are added. In Alaska the pickle 
in the butts is kept usually at from 87° to 97° salinometer test, the 
average being about 90°. As the climate in Alaska is nearly always 
cold and damp, there is but little danger of fish spoiling if ordinary 
care is used. Fish will keep indefinitely in strong pickle so long as 
they are covered with it. If kept for a long time the pickle must be 
added to occasionally to repair the losses, particularly from leakage. 
At the stations the fish at the top of the butts are usually inspected 
every few days. When the pickle begins to weaken the top layer is 
turned backs up and a few bags of salt laid on top. These press the 
fish down, and, the salt being in the bags, it dissolves much more 
slowly than if thrown loosely over the fish. 

At a few stations where the salinometer is not in use the agent 
depends upon the use of a potato to determine when the pickle is 
strong enough. If the potato floats at the surface of the pickle it 
is strong enough for curing cod. 

The pickle forms very rapidly in the early stages of the curing, 
and the surplus is allowed to escape at intervals through a bunghole 
in the butt. 

Care must be taken to see than the roof does not leak during 
the heavy rains, as should fresh water drip into the butts the fish 
will become slimy. 

Should the run vessel be delayed and a station become filled to its 
butt capacity, a space is usually cleared in the salt house and the fish 
taken from the first filled butts and kenched on the floor, a little 
salt being sprinkled between the layers and over the top. Every 
effort is made to hold them in the butts as long as practicable, as 
they retain their natural white color much better when in pickle, 
kenched fish usually acquiring a yellowish color. 

When the station vessel arrives the pickle is allowed to run off 
the fish, and they are pewed out into carts and wheeled along the 
dock to a point opposite the vessel's hatch, where they are dumped 
into a chute and pass thence into the hold, where men receive and 
kench them in the same manner as on the fishing vessels, almost no 
salt being used, however, as the fish are already well cured and also 
have a considerable quantity of salt adhering to them. 

At stations where the vessels can not lie alongside the dock, owing 
to shoal water, the vessel is usually anchored in the bay or harbor, 
and the fish are brought out to it in dories, which are loaded from 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 830. 



Plate VII. 





PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 61 

a chute rigged up at the outer end of the dock. When a dory is 
full it is rowed out alongside the vessel and the fish pewed over the 
rail. As the vessel's rail is a considerable height from the surface 
of the water when she first begins loading, it is generally necessary 
to rig a stage about midway between the surface of the water and 
the top of the rail. The fish are then pewed onto this stage, whence 
one of the crew pews them over the rail onto the deck, where another 
man pews them into the hold. This method is very expensive, as 
it requires a large number of men, is quite slow, and also injures 
the fish through the excessive number of times that the pew is driven 
into them. 

In 1912 one company had square rope nets made similar to those 
used by cargo vessels in handling small packages. A small one is 
placed in the forward end of the dory and a larger one in the after 
end, space for the boatman to stand being left between the nets. The 
fish drop from the chute into these nets. When the dory arrives 
alongside the vessel the cargo hook is lowered over the side. The 
four corners of the net have been drawn together at the top and these 
are slipped over the hook, the vessel's donkey engine started, the net 
with its contents lifted over the rail and lowered into the hold, 
where it is emptied by catching the hook in the meshes at the back 
of the net and starting the engine again. As the net comes up it is 
j emptied, after which it is swung over the side and lowered into the 
dory, when the operation is repeated with the other net. By this 
method a vessel is loaded in about one-third the time previously 
required, while but few fish are lost alongside the vessel owing to 
carelessness in pewing. Another advantage is that it is not neces- 
sary to pew the fish after they are thrown into the carts. 

There is a considerable loss of fish in passing them from the dock 
to the dory, especially in rough weather, when the dory is bobbing 
up and down like a cork. The use of chutes with closed sides and 
built-in sections, so that they could be lengthened or shortened as 
the tide ebbed or flowed, would save a considerable part of the pres- 
ent wastage from this cause. 

If the net method is not employed the best way would be to have 
medium-sized scows for transporting the fish from the dock to the 
side of the vessel. With these the waste would be almost negligible, 
as they would be so much larger than the dories that practically no 
fish would be lost overboard while the scow was pitching and rolling 
in the swell alongside the dock, and owing to the greater weight and 
size of the scow the work of loading could be carried on in weather 
too rough for dories to work. 



62 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

WASTAGE IN THE INDUSTRY. 

There is much more waste in the Pacific fishery than in the At- 
lantic, and this is due mainly to the different methods of arranging 
the fishing lay. In the Atlantic fishery every man has an interest 
in the catch, and it is to his advantage to utilize every portion of the 
fish, thus increasing the total value of the fare, which will mean a 
larger share for himself in the final division. In the Pacific fishery 
the fishermen are paid a certain sum per thousand for fish running 
over a certain size and a less sum for fish under that size. On the 
vessels the fishermen have nothing to do with dressing the fish, this 
being done by a separate gang, who are paid regular monthly wages. 
At the shore stations the fishermen dress their own fish and are paid 
a certain sum per thousand for all caught. As a result of this ar- 
rangement the Pacific crews resent doing more than merely catching 
and dressing the fish, and they even skimp the latter part all they 
possibly can. 

Livers and tongues. — As they receive no pecuniary benefit from 
the saving of livers and tongues, they naturally make no effort to 
do so unless compelled to by the owners. In dressing the fish at 
certain stations the header is expected to tear loose the liver and drop 
it into a bucket, which, when full, is dumped into the liver butt ; but 
even at these stations probably not one-fifth of the livers available 
are saved. At some stations and on certain vessels an extra boy is 
engaged, whose business it is to cut out tongues, for which he is paid 
from $3.50 to $5 per barrel, and his board. 

Sounds. — Several times efforts have been made to cut out and save 
the sounds, but the men have always asked such a high price per 
hour for the work, and so few would be secured in an hour's time, 
owing to the difficult}^ in cutting them loose and the general disin- 
clination of the cutter to work, while their thinness made it neces- 
sary to cut out a large number in order to fill a barrel, that the cost 
of obtaining them was out of all proportion to the selling price. 

Cod roe. — During the winter and spring the cod are spawning in 
Alaska, and as large quantities are captured by the station fishermen 
at that time, cod roe is exceedingly abundant. The roe of the cod 
is an excellent food product, but except for a few served to the men 
in the mess houses no use is made of them. They could be preserved, 
either by pickling or freezing, and a possible market found for them 
in this country. 

In the Atlantic fisheries large quantities are prepared as " rogue " 
and shipped to France, where it is used as bait in the sardine fisheries. 
In preparing "rogue" the roes should be soaked for some days in old 
brine and then packed in strong casks holding about 25 gallons each. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 63 

Heads and checks. — To many, a cod head, well cooked, is the choic- 
est part of the fish, but unless one is at a shore station or aboard one 
of the vessels when fishing, it is impossible to get one. If some one 
were to bring heads down to the coast States in brine he could doubt- 
less build up quite a market for them. As nearly all of the nutri- 
ment is in the lower half of the head, a small band saw could be 
installed, and the upper half of the head, which is bony and contains 
but little nutriment, cut off and thrown away, and only the lower 
part, which contains the fleshy cheeks and the succulent tongue, 
saved. When glue and fertilizer plants are established at the sta- 
tions, as will doubtless be done in the near future, the upper part 
of the head, which is rich in glue, could be used for this purpose. 

Should it not be considered desirable to save the heads, the cheeks 
(a good-sized piece of choice flesh on each side of the head) could be 
cut out and preserved. Halibut cheeks, which are no more choice 
than cod cheeks, are always to be found in our larger coast fish 
markets. 

Bones.— Fish bones are coming into quite general use by preparers 
of chicken food. These people grind up the fish bones, and, mixing 
them with other ingredients, have an excellent food for chickens. 
At present it does not pay to ship the bones, owing to their lightness 
as compared with their large bulk, but machines for grinding the 
bones could be introduced and the powder obtained shipped 
profitably. 

Salt. — A large amount of salt is thrown away annually because of 
the belief amongst packers generally that salt once used in pickle, 
though not dissolved because of the excess employed, becomes ex- 
hausted. That this is not true can readily be demonstrated by dis- 
solving it # in water and testing it with a salinometer. While it 
might not be desirable to use it a second time in the salting tank it 
could be washed and used in curing snappers and other fish which 
are to be marketed in a pickled condition. 

PREPARING COD FOR MARKET. 

As soon as a fishing or station vessel reaches its home station the fish 
are landed and put into long troughs filled with water, where they are 
cleaned with brushes. They are then put into butts in the storage 
houses, backs down, except the top layer, salt being sprinkled between 
each layer, the amount used depending upon the degree and length of 
salting on the vessel. On top of the pile is placed about half a 
bushel of salt to strengthen the weak pickle which floats up to the 
surface. If the fish have been but lightly salted on the vessel, one 
or two bags of salt are laid on top of the fish and the salt allowed 
to melt gradually. The fish remain in the butts under shelter until 
30079°— 16 5 



64 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

orders are received, which may be a year or more; in that case more 
salt being added from time to time; but the sooner they are used 
after the first few weeks the better, otherwise they have a tendency 
to turn yellow. Sunlight will also turn them yellow, so every effort 
is made to keep the storage house in deep shadow. The butts are 
either immense hogsheads or square tanks made of bolted timbers, 
and are used over and over again for years. 

The curing of salt fish depends upon drying, and this is accom- 
plished in three ways — by the use of salt, by pressure, and by ex- 
posure to the air, either in the open air or in a drier. On this coast 
all three agents are employed. 

When the fish are taken out of the butts they are piled in a kench 
or water-horsed to drain off part of the brine and to give the fish 
a smooth appearance. The fish are stacked face down, with the 
exception of the lowest layer in contact with the rack, in kenches 
about 4 feet high. If there is urgent demand for them, they are 
left in this condition for 24 to 48 hours. If more time can be al- 
lowed, they are repiled at the end of the first or second day, so that 
the fish on top may go to the bottom and be subjected to pressure 
to squeeze out part of the water. If the weather is unfavorable for 
drying the kench is repiled every second or third day, and this may 
be continued for 10 days or more. With full-pickle fish, such as pre- 
pared on this coast, it is not necessary to kench or water-horse so 
thoroughly as in the case of slack-salted or hard-dried fish. 

From the water-horse the fish go to the flakes, which are of two 
kinds, stationary and canting, the former being the more common. 
The flake consists of a lattice bed about 8 feet wide, 30 inches high, 
and as long as the requirements may demand. The lattice used on 
this bed is made of triangular strips 1 inch on the base, placed 
about 3 inches apart. The fish therefore rest upon a sharp edge 
about every 4 inches, this giving the maximum circulation of air 
about the fish. The canting-flake frames, of which there are a num- 
ber in use on this coast, are fixed only at the middle and to a hori- 
zontal axis, so that they can be turned at an agle with the horizon, 
in order to expose only the edge of the fish to the sun and to get 
the benefit of even a slight breeze. They are practical only in yards 
running north and south. 

Rectangular boxes, with peaked roofs, known as "flake boxes," 
are used for covering the fish, when gathered together in small heaps, 
from dampness or rain. This box is generally 38 inches long, 22 
inches wide, and 14 inches high, the whole being made of f-inch 
rough boards. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 65 

The fish are spread out carefully on the flakes with the face side 
up and the drying is continued as long as may be necessary for the 
particular grade of fish. The full-pickle fish are dried for the short- 
est period, as they can not be skinned readily if too dry, and, further- 
more, the trade seems to desire fish which are moist and not too 
hard, and these retain practically 50 per cent of their water. If the 
sun is fairly warm and there is a good breeze, the drying can be ac- 
complished in about 10 hours as the minimum time, but this may be 
greatly increased with unfavorable weather conditions. Only one 
drying is usual for the full-cured fish. 

Fish intended for Porto Rico, or export, are usually kenched di- 
rectly from the vessel and not placed in butts. When needed they 
are dried for three days, u sweated " for two days, then again dried 
for two days. The object of the sweating is to bring the moisture 
out of the* interior of the fish. The drying on the flakes removes the 
moisture from the surface and crystallizes the salt, but to get the 
moisture out of the center of the meat the fish must be piled in the 
kench, where the dry salt takes up some of the remaining moisture, 
so that the second drying on the flakes has a greater effect. The ex- 
port fish are usually dried sufficiently hard to withstand the pres- 
sure of the thumb in the thick part of the flesh without retaining 
the impression. The full-pickle fish lose about 9 per cent of their 
weight in drying on the flakes. When cured they retain about 50 
per cent of their moisture, and the hard-dried from 25 to 30 per cent. 

The sanitary Conditions around a flake yard must be carefully 
looked after, as otherwise flies will breed and cause fly-blowing on 
the slack-salted fish. 

Nearly all of the home stations on this coast have large artificial 
driers. These consist of inclosed rooms in which there are shelves 
of hot-water pipes, above which trays of fish are placed, and the air 
is made to circulate over them by means of a large fan. These dry 
kilns are used chiefly in the drying of export fish. During foggy 
and damp weather and in winter when sunlight is rare they are used 
frequently. 

After the fish have been dried they are carted to the storeroom 
and kenched until packed for .shipment. 

If the fish are to be boned and skinned they are taken to a separate 
room. Here the operator first cuts off the dorsal and ventral fins, 
then starts the skin at the napes and pulls it in toward the middle 
of the back and then toward the tail. If the fish has been properly 
cured the skin can be stripped off clean without tearing the flesh. 
The tail is then cut off, after which the fish is turned over and the 
nape bones removed with a small iron gaff called a " bone hooker." 
The remaining portion of the backbone is cut out and the pectoral 



66 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

fins cut off. If it is to be put up as " absolutely boneless " the fish 
is passed to the bone pickers, who remove with forceps the ribs and 
any pieces of bone left in the body. If the fish are to be packed as 
so-called " boneless," then the fins only are cut off and the thick part 
of the backbone cut out closely, the small pieces of the fins, ribs, and 
backbone being allowed to remain. 

In making " bricks" or blocks the fish are then cut to the desired 
size on a table made of blocks with openings between them at regu- 
lar intervals. The fish, sometimes as many as eight or nine, are laid 
one on top of the other on the cutting table so that the best parts 
come between the openings. Then a long-bladed knife is driven 
through them and they are ready to be packed into bricks, etc. A 
trough, or miter box, is also used for securing the same result. 

The pieces of fish are passed to girls, who sort them and weigh out 
exactly a pound or 2 pounds, whichever the weight of the brick is to 
be. Two good slices are selected to make the outside of the package 
and short or narrow strips to make up the middle part. The weighed 
fish is passed to the brickmaker, who selects, first, the piece which will 
make a whole side and an edge, and places it in the galvanized-iron 
mold; the smaller pieces are then put in, and lastly the remaining 
large piece to make a side. The selecting and placing of the pieces in 
such a way as to make the best appearing cake is quite a knack. The 
mold, which is 6 inches long by 3 inches wide and 3J inches deep, is 
pressed tightly by foot or hand power, held for a few seconds, and 
then strings, which had previously been placed across the bottom of 
the mold in grooves left for the purpose, are tied around each end. 
The package is then completed by wrapping in paraffined or parch- 
ment paper with recipes and other matter printed on it. Some 
packers wrap in the parchment or paraffined paper and then inclose 
in a lithographed wrapper. There are several grades of bricks, de- 
pending upon the appearance and color of the fish, the choiceness of 
the pieces used, and the special curing to which the fish was origi- 
nally subjected. Twenty-four 1-pound, twelve 2-pound, or twelve 
3-pound bricks make a crate or case. The " boneless " fish put up in 
5-pound boxes, but not pressed, run 12 to a crate. 

Several forms of presses are used in this work, the most common 
consisting of a sliding box having two or three compartments, each 
of the size desired, and so arranged that a hand or foot lever forces 
a block down in one compartment at a time. The pressure remains 
while the fish are being placed in the second compartment, and when 
it is released the box is slid along until the second compartment 
comes under the press, when the brick in the first compartment is 
removed. 



U. S. B. F— Doc. 830. 



Plate VIM. 




FIG. 1.— CUTTING STRIPS FOR THE MAKING OF COD BRICKS. 




FIG. 2.— MAKING COD BRICKS. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 6? 

Shredded codfish, known as " desiccated codfish," " fibered codfish," 
" flaked codfish," and " skriggled codfish," is made up from the trim- 
mings not otherwise used in packing the regular tablets, and is pre- 
pared on this coast by only one company. The material used is as good 
as any employed, but the pieces are too small to be used in the 
regular brick. It is run through a machine which tears the muscle 
into small fibrous bundles. In order to get this very fine and fluffy 
it may be necessary to press out part of the water after the first treat- 
ment and run it through the machine again, and then sift it to free it 
from all particles of bone. The shredded fish" is put up in 5 and 7 
ounce cartons and jars, the latter being hermetically sealed in vacuum. 
Twenty-four boxes or jars make a crate. 

A considerable quantity of skinned cod is put up in 100-pound 
cases. These are divided into " Large whole," " Extra large whole,'' 
and u Eastern style." These cases contain some of the finest of the 
whole cod cured, and the grade is fixed by the number of fish in the 
case. The last named are packed in eastern wood and are supposed 
to most nearly resemble the eastern fish of the same size and style of 
preparation. 

The Porto Rican export, or hard-salted fish, are packed in drums, 
boxes, and bundles to suit the order, but there are regular drums 
for 50, 100, 200, 300, and 448 pounds. The 448-pound drum is 
used very largely in the Porto Eican trade. The fish packed in 
drums are all well dried. 

When placed in drums the fish are carefully arranged in circular 
fashion, with the flesh side up, until several layers have been put in, 
and then a layer is placed backs up. The fish are then well tamped 
with a heavy wooden tamper. Fish are again added and the tamp- 
ing repeated at intervals. When the last fish are finally piled on the 
drum they will extend several inches above it, and a ratchet or a 
hydraulic press is necessary to force them down so that the head 
can be put in. 

During the winter months a small business is done in preparing 
bacalao for the San Francisco trade. Usually this business is con- 
trolled by eastern packers who use the very small haddock in pre- 
paring it. Occasionally small haddock are not available from east- 
ern waters during the winter season, and it is then that the Latin- 
speaking peoples of California fall back upon the local packers for 
their supplies. Small snappers, of which there is never a large 
supply on this coast, are used, and the fish are hard dried and then 
packed 100 pounds in a drum. It is fortunate that the business 
is not more extensive on this coast, as it means a heavy drain on 
the young cod, which if allowed to live a year longer would be much 
enhanced in value. 



68 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

Large quantities of cod are sold after having been water-horsed 
and packed in bundles weighing 50 and 100 pounds. These fish are 
not skinned. A considerable trade in this grade of fish is had with 
the Hawaiian Islands. 

Skinned fish are also put up in strips and middles. The strips 
consist of one-half the fish split down the middle and are cut to suit 
the trade — some left whole and some with more or less of the nape 
and thinner portion at the tail cut off in order to get heavy pieces. 
These are put up usually in 20 and 40 pound boxes. The middle is 
the whole fish after being skinned and the napes and tail cut off; 
how much of the napes and tail is cut off depends upon the number 
of middles permitted in a box of a certain size. They are quoted 
usually by the size — 8 to 10, or 10 to 12, in a 40-pound box. They 
are also packed in 60-pound boxes. Frequently each individual fish 
is cut transversely the width of the box and folded over itself. Thick 
fish are sometimes cut transversely and each piece split and folded 
over in such a manner that the clean cut appears outside. The fish 
are also sometimes cut transversely across the fiber and tightly 
packed in boxes with the fiber running perpendicularly. 

The trade in brine-salted codfish on the Pacific coast is small, and 
is confined exclusively to the small fish or snappers. In pickling, the 
fish are dressed, split, washed, and salted in butts in the same man- 
ner as has been heretofore noted in preparing dry-salted cod. When 
shipment is to be made the fish are removed from the butts, cleaned 
with brushes, and placed in tight half barrels, flesh side up, except 
the top layer, which is placed back up, the fish being bent to follow 
the curve of the half barrel. It is important that the fish be not 
repacked until thoroughly struck, otherwise the flesh will be marked 
with yellow spots caused by contact of the imperfectly cured fish 
with each other. Salt is placed at the bottom of the barrel and over 
each layer of fish, from one-half to three-quarters of a peck being 
used to each half barrel of fish. The barrel is then headed and strong 
brine added through the bunghole. About 38 medium-sized snappers 
are required to fill a half barrel. Most of these fish are sold to coast- 
ers plying up and down the coast and are fed to the crews. 

The station fishermen frequently prepare a cod delicacy which 
they enjoy very much. Selecting a suitable cod stomach, the fisher- 
man will carefully clean this inside and out. Several fresh, healthy 
cod livers are then picked out, chopped fine, and mixed w 7 ith a little 
flour and vegetables; the stomachs are stuffed with this mixture, after 
which they are cooked like sausages. 

Stock-fish. — Of recent years a considerable business has developed 
in the preparation of stockfish. Two small shore stations in the 
Shumagins devote a considerable portion of their energies during 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 69 

the colder portion of the year to this work, while a few individuals 
occasionally have put up varying quantities. 

In preparing stockfish the fish are split in the regular way to a 
spot a little below the vent. The backbone is then removed and the 
fish split into two equal halves as far as the first cut extended. 
Snappers are sometimes merely gutted. 

The drying yard comprises a network of wires running from 
crosspieces nailed onto uprights. The fish are hung over these wires, 
flesh side in, and supported by the undivided portion of the tail. 
Here they are allowed to cure in the sun and wind, no salt at all 
being used, sometimes for as long as six or seven weeks, the length 
of time depending upon how much moisture there is in the atmos- 
phere. During long-continued rains the fish are stored under cover, 
but it does not hurt them to remain out during ordinary rains. 
When bone-dry the fish are stowed away in dry, cool houses, and 
when shipped are bound by wires into bales. 

This work is carried on in winter, which is the only season when 
comparatively dry, cold weather is experienced in the Shumagins. 
In shipping and storing these fish great care must be exercised to 
see that thgy are not placed in a damp room, or that anything damp 
comes in contact with them, as in that event they will become slimy. 

Fish prepared in this manner will keep for a much longer period 
than when prepared by any other method. It is much practiced by 
the Norwegians. 

When desired for the table a sufficient number are put to soak in 
water and remain there four to five days, the water being changed 
every day. When of the desired softness the fish are put in fresh 
water with some lye and allowed to remain about 24 hours. The lye 
cuts the slime from the fish and gives it an added flavor. 

Tongues. — Cod tongues are saved whenever possible. On the ves- 
sels one of the dress gang usually cuts them out, while at the stations 
some one other than a regular fisherman usually does this work. A 
cod's tongue is attached to the lower jaw, and when cut out includes 
all that part of the jaw lying inside the jawbone. When cutting 
tongues the operator takes hold of the fish by the back of the head, 
using the eyes for finger holds. As he lifts the fish by the head 
its mouth usually falls open, then with his other hand he cuts the 
tongue loose on the sides with a sharp knife, then cuts loose the lower 
end along the curving bone forming the back part of the lower jaw. 
The tongue is then hanging by a thin strip at the forward end of the 
jaw, from whence it is torn loose by the hand. The tongues are cured 
loosely in barrels with salt, and after being thoroughly struck are 
packed in barrels holding 200 pounds, which are headed up, after 
which a strong brine is added through the bung. They are sold in 



70 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

these barrels or else repacked in half barrels, pails, and kits. Some 
are mixed with sounds and sold as tongues and sounds. As no sounds 
are saved on this coast, eastern sounds are employed in packing the 
latter. 

Codfish tongues, especially when fresh, are considered a great deli- 
cacy. They are thoroughly washed in order to clean them, then dried 
with a clean cloth, rolled in bread or cracker crumbs, and fried the 
same as oysters. The salt tongues can be prepared in the same 
manner after having been thoroughly soaked in fresh water. 

The packers never overstock with codfish tongues if it can be 
avoided, as in a year or two part of the tongue hardens, thus making 
it practically worthless as food. 

Canning. — On the Atlantic coast a considerable quantity of cod 
is canned annually under the name of " codfish flakes." An even 
greater quantity of hake, haddock, and cod are canned together under 
the name of " fish flakes." The opportunity for canning cod is 
especially good on the Pacific coast. Several of the salmon canneries 
are located in close proximity to the cod banks, and as these plants 
already have the machinery and employees needed for carrying on 
this work in addition to the canning of salmon, cod could be canned 
much more cheaply than if a plant had to be erected especially for 
the work. As no other members of the Gadidas other than the true 
cod are available on the Pacific coast for this work, the product could 
be sold under a cod label, which would considerably enhance its 
value. 

Cod-liver oil. — At an early date in the fishery oil was being ex- 
tracted from the livers of cod. In 1866, 10,000 gallons were reported 
as being rendered, which statement seems somewhat of an exaggera- 
tion when the tnen extent of the fishery is taken into account. In 
1879 Lynde & Hough are reported as bringing to San Francisco 3,000 
gallons of oil. In later years a small quantity was prepared each sea- 
son, the quantity depending upon the demand and price. 

All the oil prepared was by means of rotting the livers in large vats 
or hogsheads, and the resulting product, after being strained, was 
shipped in this condition. 

In 1899 the Alaska Codfish Co. installed a refining plant at its 
Kelleys Rock station, in Alaska, and operated it successfully until 
100 barrels (iron-lined receptacles holding 20 gallons) had accumu- 
lated, when they w^ere brought to San Francisco and the oil offered 
for sale to makers of emulsion of cod-liver oil. At that time the 
market was overloaded with this grade of oil and the best price 
offered was about what the container cost, so the oil was stored and 
the plant shut down. A few years later the market picked up and the 
oil was disposed of at $22 per barrel. In the meantime the com- 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 71 

pany's oil maker had disappeared and the plant was so badly dilapi- 
dated through the action of the elements that the industry was not 
resumed. 

Later the Union Fish Co. installed a plant at Pirate Cove, but after 
refining a small quantity at no profit to the company, this plant 
was also shut down and has remained so ever since. 

At present the small quantity rendered is shipped just as taken 
from the rotting tank, except that it is first strained. 

Glue and fertilizer. — As early as 1893 a plant was started in Cali- 
fornia for the purpose of manufacturing glue from codfish skins 
and other refuse of the packing plants in the States. The material 
remaining after the glue had been extracted was prepared and sold 
as fertilizer. There are now two plants at Anacortes, Wash., and one 
in California which prepare glue in whole or in part from cod. 

It is to be hoped that in the near future small plants for the manu- 
facture of glue and fertilizer will be established at certain centrally 
located stations in Alaska, where the large quantity of heads, entrails, 
and spoiled fish can be utilized and not, as now, thrown into the 
water under the dress houses, where they pollute the water, while the 
bones remaining after the flesh has rotted aw T ay are gradually filling 
up the smaller harbors. 

USE OF PRESERVATIVES. 

In 1881 boracic acid was introduced as a preservative in the fish 
industry and was used continuously until 1907, when it was quite 
generally superseded by sodium benzoate. Boracic acid is but rarely 
employed on this coast at the present time, and when so employed 
it is on export fish. If this acid is used it is applied to the fish when 
they are being shifted in the water-horse or to the outside of the 
completed brick. 

Sodium benzoate is almost solely the only preservative used on 
this coast. It is mixed with finely ground salt and applied by means 
of a powdering can like a large pepper box. It is used upon the 
fish in the storeroom if the weather conditions demand it, but its 
principal use is upon the fish as they are being weighed out into 
tablets and bricks. This preservative is used chiefly during the 
warmer months. The amount used is not weighed, but is dusted on 
to cover the whole surface, the effort being to apply from 0.3 to 0.4 
per cent. When this preservative is used the package of fish bears 
the following label or stamp : " Sprinkled with one-half of 1 per 
cent soda benzoate. To remove, soak out in fresh water." 

Preservatives are never used upon fish shipped to near-by points 
or if the fish are to be consumed very shortly after being shipped. 
Its use is generally upon fish shipped abroad, or fish shipped con- 
siderable distances in this country during the summer months. 



72 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

MARKET FOR PACIFIC COD. 

The development of the demand for Pacific cod has been one of 
slow growth against great obstacles. In the early days of the in- 
dustry all of the catch was marketed on the coast, and as salt fish was 
scarce and in good demand, fairly good prices were obtained for 
an article which, in many instances, was only indifferently cured. 
The success of the pioneers led to a rapid expansion of the industry, 
with the result that the local market was soon overstocked and the 
curers had to look to the Middle Western and Eastern States and 
abroad for a market for the surplus. 

At this period the eastern curers, and the large wholesale salt fish 
houses scattered throughout the country who purchased their sup- 
plies from them, controlled the markets for cod throughout the 
United States, while all of the cod exported from this country went 
from New England. Naturally these curers, and the wholesalers 
dependent upon them, did not welcome the intrusion of Pacific cod, 
and while they were unable to prevent the loss of the greater part 
of their trade on the Pacific coast, they fought hard for the rest. 
Dealers and consumers were told in some instances that the fish pre- 
pared by this coast's curers were not cod, or that they were a very 
inferior grade of cod; that the fish would not keep, etc. That these 
misstatements had a wide dissemination and made a considerable 
impression is evidenced even to this day in the prejudice which is 
met with in different sections of the country against Pacific cod. 

Unfortunately, the Pacific coast producers, through ignorance, 
played right into the hands of their trade enemies when first invad- 
ing the territory hitherto held by them alone. Some of the fish were 
poorly prepared and part of them were shipped across the continent 
during a season when the weather was warm, and as they had been 
stowed in ordinary box cars, the temperature of these corresponded to 
the weather, so that the fish arrived in the eastern market in very poor 
condition, thus disgusting the few dealers who had been willing to 
give them a trial. The shippers quickly discovered their error, and 
ifterwards restricted shipments for long distances to the colder 
months of the year and also used refrigerator cars. The damage had 
been done, however, and from then on it was slow and discouraging 
uphill work extending the market for Pacific cod east of the Eocky 
Mountains. 

The fight of the Pacific cod for admission into eastern markets is a 
typical example of how difficult it is to overcome a prejudice, no 
matter how insufficiently founded. 

On the Pacific coast but one species of the Gadidrc, the true cod, or 
Gadus macrocephalus, is to be found of a sufficient size for dry- 
salting, and, as a result, is the only species sold in any condition 
other than fresh. At the very time the dealers were refusing Pacific 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. *7& 

cod, and for a number of years after, the vast majority of them were 
purchasing from eastern curers hake, cusk, and pollock, closely re- 
lated species to the true cod, but much cheaper, and, in the opinion 
of those best informed, much inferior to the true cod, and selling 
these as true cod along with the cod itself. The advent of the pure- 
food law compelled the dealers to sell the fish for what they really 
were, and as a result the market for the Pacific cod has been rapidly 
widening since. 

Being shut off from Europe and the east coast of South and Cen- 
tral America by high freight rates and the great distance the fish 
had to travel, the Pacific dealers directed their efforts toward Mexico, 
the west coast of Central America, the islands of the Pacific, and 
Asia with most gratifying results. At one time a large business was 
done with Australia, until that Commonwealth enacted a stringent 
law prohibiting the use of preservatives on shipments into that 
country of salt fish. As the goods had to pass through the Tropics 
on their way to Australia, and the Australians are not accustomed to 
using hard-cured fish, heavy losses through fish spoiling resulted 
from this prohibition and the market there has been much curtailed 
as a result. 

Despite the natural and artificial handicaps under which the in- 
dustry suffered a considerable trade has been developed in the West 
Indies, and this has been much enlarged since the European war 
broke out, the Norwegians, who formerly shipped large quantities to 
this section, have found a new market in Germany. The opening 
of the Panama Canal has also greatly aided in the expansion of the 
trade in this section of the world. 

The Asian market will undoubtedly in time attain to large di- 
mensions. At present, and for a number of years back, it has been 
steadily widening as the fish became better known and the means of 
transportation increased. 

Hawaii consumes large quantities of cod and the greater part of 
this comes from the Pacific coast. San Francisco dealers ship nearly 
all of the bundle fish (fish which have been water-horsed and put 
into bundles of 100 pounds each and bagged) and a considerable 
part of the cased cod, while the Puget Sound dealers ship maimy 
cased fish. 

Mexico is rapidly developing into an excellent market for Pacific 
cod, mainly for cased fish which have been harder dried than for 
consumption nearer home. 

The increase in steamship lines to South and Central America, 
due to the opening of the Panama Canal, will greatly aid in the 
widening of the markets for Pacific cod in that region of the world. 

The demand on the part of the public for dried cod is not what it 
ought to be, and a good part of this lack of demand is due to the 



74 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

archaic methods of doing business prevalent not only in the Pacific 
cod industry but also in that of the Atlantic. 

If the shippers of codfish were to copy somewhat the methods 
followed by the meat packers they would have less loss from spoilage, 
while the fish would present so much nicer appearance that the de- 
mand for it would materially increase. The only difference between 
salted meat and salted fish is that the latter is less liable to spoil. 

When shipping to the Atlantic seaboard the dealers usually select 
the season from November to March and load the fish in refrigerator 
cars. The latter are cooled but little during the shipment. In ship- 
ping lesser distances the fish are usually stowed in ordinary box cars. 
Sometimes these box cars are shunted onto sidetracks and held for 
days at a time, and should the temperature rise above 65° F. during 
this period and under these conditions reddening is apt to appear. 

The better plan is to have cold-storage depots located in trade cen- 
ters. The fish could be shipped in refrigerator cars to these depots 
frequently, where they could be put in storage. The retailers could 
then be encouraged to order the fish in small lots, say enough to last 
for a week or 10 days, and thus they would always have on hand 
comparatively fresh fish. 

In their eagerness, however, to do business the jobbers frequently 
overload the retailer, with the result that the fish dry out to such an 
extent that the salt crystallizes upon it and the fish presents an un- 
attractive appearance, while if the temperature rises above a certain 
point reddening is apt to occur should conditions be ripe for it. 

Grocery stores are the chief handlers of cod, and but few of them 
are properly equipped for doing this. It is but rarely that a customer 
who enters one of these stores will see dried cod on exhibition, or, if 
he does, it is usually whole fish jumbled up in a case and presenting 
an unattractive appearance. Usually the fish is kept in a back room 
or the cellar and is brought out only when the customer orders it. 
As many customers are in an uncertain frame of mind as to what 
they want when they enter a store, and usually decide after a glance 
over the visible stock, it follows naturally that but few ever order 
salt cod, and, owing to the extra labor involved in bringing the cod 
from the back room or cellar, the clerks rarely ever call the customer's 
attention to its existence. 

If the retailer fitted up a small refrigerated show case with glass 
sides and top, somewhere in the store proper, he could not only keep 
in this his dried cod, especially the bricks, tablets, middles, etc., 
which could be tastefully arranged on china trays, but could also 
display a number of other articles wmich require to be kept in a 
cool place and which are usually sold in grocery stores, such as 
smoked fish, pickled fish, etc. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



75 



With the fish displayed thus prominently before the customer, his 
attention is at once attracted to it, and he is much more liable to pur- 
chase it than if the product were kept out of sight and only produced 
when a customer called for it. 

The greater part of the bricks and tablets are now wrapped in 
white parchment paper with the brand and a little lettering printed 
on it in a neutral tint. A few of the more progressive dealers wrap 
them in the parchment and then inclose the package in an ornately 
lithographed wrapper. The latter makes a very attractive appear- 
ance, and undoubtedly aids in calling the attention of the consumer 
to the product, particularly if it is displayed as recommended above, 
as is the case in a few of the high-class delicatessen stores. An even 
better method would be to pack the bricks and tablets in lithographed 
cartons made to hold certain sizes. On one side recipes for cooking 
and preparing the fish should be printed; if the fish is improperly 
prepared by a cook unfamiliar with it, those who partake of it are 
not apt to want it again. 

COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF PACIFIC AND ATLANTIC COD. 

Much has been said and written as to the alleged superiority of 
Atlantic over Pacific cod. While there are a number of analyses 
of Atlantic cod extant, the same, unfortunately, is not true of the 
Pacific cod. The only one available is that made for the Robinson 
Fisheries Co., of Anacortes, Wash., and the subject was a sample of 
shredded Pacific cod. Fortunately, there is one analysis of Atlantic 
shredded cod with which it can be compared. The analyses follow : 

COMPAEISON OF PACIFIC AND ATLANTIC SlIKEDDED CODFISH. 



Water 

Protein (calc. from nitrogen) . . 
Protein (calc. from differences) . 
Fat 



Ash 

Phosphoric anhydride 

Sulphuric anhydride 

Chlorine 

Fuel value per pound calories (calc). 



Pacific 
cod. a 



Per cent. 
43.90 
37.19 
35.00 

.73 
20. 37 

.69 

.07 
11.37 

682 



Atlantic 
cod.b 



Per cent. 
46.52 
30.85 



.33 
22.81 



a Analysis made by Stillwell & Gladding, New York, N. Y. 

6 Foods and Their Adulteration, by Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, p. 12G. Philadelphia, 1907. 



REDDENING OF COD. 

A source of "considerable expense and annoyance to the codfish 
packers is the occasional reddening of the fish. While not so common 
on the Pacific coast as on the Atlantic and European coasts, due to 
the much lower mean temperature during the warm months and pos- 
sibly the grade of salt used, yet it does appear at times. 



76 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

Codfish and some other salt-cured fish are subject to spoilage when 
exposed to a temperature above 65° F. The spoilage is manifested 
by the surface of the fish turning red and emitting a foul odor. This 
is an old complaint on both coasts and in Europe, and has been in- 
creasingly expensive on the Atlantic coast, as the expansion of the 
industry has necessitated the marketing of greater and greater 
quantities of fish during the warm months of the year. It appears 
only on the dry-salted fish, as fish completely submerged in pickle 
seems to be immune so long as it is retained there. 

The first sign of redness appears when the dried fish are stored on 
the ground floor and before the skinning and packing are done, but 
frequently it may not appear until many days after the fish has been 
packed and shipped. 

Reddening is essentially a surface infection. Except as it follows 
fissures in the muscles, cuts, or breaks where the air has free access, 
it does not appear below the surface. On the whole fish, the favorite 
point of attack is near the backbone, and this is due to the greater 
thickness of flesh, which insures more moisture at all times. It is 
more often found upon the outside of the bricks or tablets. 

Sometimes the affected fish is of a pale, pink color, at other times 
a bright red. Experiments have disclosed that the pink is caused 
by the germs being in a thin layer on very moist fish ; the more intense 
color appears when the fish is drier and the germs form thicker 
spots or a series of colonies. In the latter stage the germs have a 
moister and more oily appearance, although both conditions may 
appear on the same fish. The redness may occur on either the skin 
or the flesh, or both, but is not so readily seen nor developed on the 
skin. So far as known, the infection occurs on the salted fish only, 
but as the germs have been found in water used to wash the fresh 
fish, it is possible they would develop on fresh fish should they be 
kept sufficiently long for the color to appear. As cod are not mar- 
keted in a fresh condition on the Pacific coast, this possibility does 
not concern our fishermen. 

Cold checks the growth of the organisms causing the reddening, 
and in addition it also has the effect of bleaching the color which may 
be present. 

This reddening of cod has been studied by a number of scientists. 
As yet the source of infection causing the red discoloration has not 

a On the nature of the peculiar reddening of salted codfish during the summer season, by 
W. G. Farlow. United States Fish Commission Report for 1878, p. 969W974. (1880.) 

Vegetable parasites of codfish, by W. G. Farlow. Bulletin United Stales Fish Com- 
mission, 1886, p. 1-4, 2 flg. (1887.) 

Observations on the red flesh of the codfish, by A. Layet. Bulletin United States Fish 
Commission, 1887, vol. 7, p. 90-95. (3 889.) 

Pre] >a ration of the cod and other salt fish for the market, including a bacteriological study 
of the causes of reddening, by A. W. Bitting. United States Department of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Chemistry. Bulletin no. 133. 63 p., ill. (1911.) 

Edington : Report of the Fisheries Board of Scotland, 1887. 

Jordan : Massachusetts State Board of Health Report, 1890, vol. 2. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 77 

been fully determined, but it is probable that the normal habitat 
of the organisms is in the salt water and lowlands along the coast, 
and, being saprophytic, they will grow upon the salt fish when 
brought in contact with them. This seems to be borne out by the 
fact that the organisms can grow freely upon fish or wood that is 
salty to any degree, and even upon the surface of salt crystals. 
Salt acts as a preservative by preventing the growth of most organ- 
isms, which would cause spoilage in foods, but it has no such effect 
in this case. 

The finding of the organisms on the salt in the hold of a steamer 
and on the salt in the storehouses is evidence that it must have been 
infected where it was produced. The salt used is solar-sea salt, the 
salt beds are on low grounds and marshes near-by, making it easily 
possible for infection to occur during its preparation. 

As investigation has proven that winter-cured fish — which have 
been packed at a season when the growth of the organisms has been 
arrested by the low temperature — spoil when exposed to a warm 
temperature, it shows that some source of infection must be acting 
continuously. If the infection were due wholly to the salt, then the 
use of mined salt or sterile salt would suffice to prevent spoilage. 
Experiments made with the refined salts showed some improvement 
over the use of the solar salt. While the lower temperature of this 
coast in summer has aided very much in reducing the amount of 
reddened cod, part of the improvement is ascribed by some packers 
to the use of a higher grade of salt than used on the Atlantic coast. 
In the Provinces some mined salt is used, but spoilage occurs there 
also. As the spoilage is the same no matter in what form or where 
the fish may be shipped, the infection must take place during the 
preparation of the fish, and can not, therefore, come from external 
infection of the finished product. 

Should local conditions be such that the infecting organisms 
abound naturally, they may be carried into the boats, the butt sheds, 
the flake yard, the storerooms, and preparation rooms by the wind, 
on the boots, clothing, or hands of sailors and factory employees, and 
by the use of water in making pickle and cleansing the buildings. 

A Gloucester (Mass.) packer claims to have used acetic acid suc- 
cessfully in preventing fish from reddening and also in removing the 
objectionable color from specimens carrying it. His method is to 
apply with an ordinary nasal atomizer a small quantity of a 10 per 
cent solution of glacial acetic acid to the exterior of the fish. Experi- 
ments carried out by Bitting" indicated that the amount necessary 
for inhibition is about one-tenth of 1 per cent. Distilled vinegar has 
ilso a decided inhibiting action on the growth of the organisms, but 

a United States Bureau of Chemistry Bulletin no. 133, p. '.1. 






78 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

as an objectionable odor results it is not possible to employ this 
medium. 

According to Bitting,* " the further the bacteriological work on 
the cause of the reddening of salt fish is carried the stronger the 
evidence becomes that it is due to factory infection, to the use of 
contaminated water, and to the methods of handling. The outside 
influences, particularly the germs found in the lowlands and in the. 
vicinity of the factory, have probably been greatly overestimated. 
The amount of infection due to the use of solar salt has not been 
definitely determined, as in the experiments intended for that pur- 
pose the amount due to factory infection was not wholly eliminated. 
AVI nit at the beginning appeared to be primarily a problem of how to 
avoid spoilage in an infected product by preventing the growth of 
the organisms present now appears to consist rather in the usual 
difficulty of preventing infection."' 

As a result of his investigations, Mr. Bitting makes the following 
recommendations for the prevention of factory infection : 

1. The fish should be handled from the vessel to the scales without being 
thrown upon the deck or dock where they may become infected from the boards 
or be stepped upon by the workmen. All of the docks are infected with the red 
organisms, and fish coming in contact with them become inoculated. 

2. The floors, scales, dressing tables, wash tanks, wheelbarrows, and every- 
thing with which the fish come in contact in making them ready for the butt; 
should be frequently washed with water under considerable pressure. A rela- 
tively small stream of water under strong pressure is far more effectual ii 
cleaning than a larger stream of water at low pressure. 

3. The fish should be washed by sprays of water or by a machine. The 
sprays should have sufficient force to do the work well. The present methoc 
of pitching the fish into a tank or dory and then out again is not sufficient foi 
cleaning, and, furthermore, it tends to disseminate any organisms which ma: 
be present. 

4. The water used upon the fish or upon anything with which the fish come ii 
contact should be of undoubted purity. The use of harbor water for any pur- 
pose can not be justified, as it is filled with the germs which come from empty- 
ing the butts and washing fish and docks. It is also apt to be polluted wit] 
sewage from the city, as was found to be the case in the investigation here 
reported. 

5. The butts should be thoroughly cleaned inside and out and steamed for 2( 
minutes or sprayed with a solution of sulphurous acid. 

6. Before fish are taken out of the butts water should be turned in to cause 
the brine to overflow and wash away any reddening which may have occurred 
on the top. 

7. The fish should be passed through a spray of water to remove the adher- 
ent salt, as this adds weight and does not increase the time of keeping. 

8. Racks used in water-horsing should be steamed or sprayed, and the work 
be done in. the light and in one place in the factory rather than at any point 
in the shed where the butt may happen to be. 

!>. The drying should be carried as far as possible and still permit proper 
skinning. A second drying, or Nova Scotia style of cure, should be encouraged. 

a United States Bureau of Chemistry Bulletin no. 133, p. 61. 



U. S. B. F— Doc. 830. 



Plate IX. 




FIG. 1.— COD GILL NETS ON DRYING REEL. 




FIG. 2.— UNION FISH COMPANY'S HOME STATION AT UNION CITY, SAN FRANCISCO BAY, CAL. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 79 

10. The kenching in the storeroom should permit a circulation of air and 
not cause dead air spaces. The kench racks should be steamed or sprayed after 
each period of use. 

11. The walls, posts, and floors should be sprayed often, once a week during 
the cool season and twice a week during the summer. 

12. Treading the fish in drums should be prohibited. Workingmen coming in 
from the street in their dirty shoes obviously should not be allowed to tread 
the fish in the packing operation. A mechanical appliance would accomplish 
the same purpose in a cleanly manner. 

13. The boxes used in carrying the fish from the storeroom to the skinning 
loft and from the tables to the cutters and packers should be washed each day. 

14. The skinning or cutting tables should not have shelves or boxes beneath 
to catch bits of skin or fish. They should be well washed each evening. The 
simple brushing with a hand broom is not sufficient. The floor should be 
cleaned often. 

15. All refuse should be removed from the room promptly. Bits of fish in 
barrels and boxes act only as incubators to perpetuate the infection. 

16. The finished product should be held in a reasonably cool place in summer, 
and when shipped it should be handled under proper temperature conditions as 
are other meat products. 

17. All new construction or remodeling should make ample provision for 
light. Many of the present structures are too dark. 

18. All rubbish, as barrels, hoops, staves, waste, etc., should be removed from 
the flake yards and docks. 

19. Concentrated sulphurous acid should be used as a disinfectant when 
steam is not available. One part of the acid to 50 parts of water is effectual 
where much reddening has occurred, and 1 part to 200 parts of water will be 
effective in preventing growth if used often.® 

BROWN MOLD. 

Brown mold, which forms brown, frecklelike spots on partly 
dried fish, occurs but rarely on this coast. It occurs usually on old 
fish, but may be found on comparatively fresh fish also. The fungus 
affects both sides of the fish, even covering the fins and tail. When it 
is found on comparatively fresh fish, they are scrubbed with a brush 
in running water, after which they are powdered. But little atten- 
tion is paid to this fungus by the packers. 

THE INDUSTRY IN 1915. 

PERSONS EMPLOYED. 

The following table shows the persons employed in the various 
branches of the industry and their nationality. California leads 
Washington in the total number of persons employed by a slight mar- 
gin. The latter State leads, however, in the number of fishermen em- 
ployed. The whites vastly outnumber the other employees, only 15 
Indians and 16 Japanese being employed out of a total number of 

a United States Bureau of Chemistry Bulletin no. 133, p. 61-63. 
• 30079°— 16 6 



80 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



919. Most of the Japanese are employed as cooks, while the Indians 
act as fishermen exclusively. 

Persons Employed in the Cod Fisheries of the Pacific Coast in 1915. 



How engaged. 


Alaska. 


Wash- 
ington. 


Cali- 
fornia. 


Total. 




47 
17 


268 


255 

22 


570 


In transporting: Whites 


39 








In shore and boat fisheries: 

Whites 


143 

16 




143 


Indians 




16 








Total 


159 


I 


159 








In shore work: 

Whites 


22 

8 


59 
8 


95 


176 




16 








Total 


30 


67 


95 


192 






Total: 

Whites 


229 
16 

8 


327 


372 


887 


Indians 


16 


Japanese 


8 




16 








Grand total 


253 


335 


372 


928 







INVESTMENT. 

Twenty-one vessels were engaged in fishing and 9 in transporting, 
while 11 launches, each under 5 net tons, and 533 boats were employed 
in all branches of the fisheries. Hand lines were used exclusively in 
the fishery. California leads in the total investment in the fishery, 
followed by Alaska and Washington in the order named. The high 
value of the investment in Alaska is due to the number of shore 
stations located there. 

Vessels, Boats, Apparatus, Shore Property, and Cash Capital Employed in 
the Cod Fisheries of the Pacific Coast in 1915. 





Alaska. 


Washington. 


California. 


Total. 


Designation. 


Num- 
ber. 


Value. 


Num- 
ber. 


Value. 


Num- 
ber. 


Value. 


Num- 
ber. 


Value. 


Vessels fishing 


6 
155 


$47, 500 


8 
2,084 


$75, 000 


7 
2,175 

4 
728 


$95, 000 


21 
4,414 

9 

787 

15 

533 


$217, 500 




Outfit 


2,421 
11,900 


32, 881 


28, 844 
70, 500 


64 146 


Vessels transporting 


5 

59 


82, 400 








Outfit 


5,650 

25, 000 

8,640 

124 

422 

114,600 

55, 510 






17, 000 
4,000 
5,340 

608 


22, 650 
29, 000 
20 118 




14 

222 






1- 

146 




165 


6,138 
797 


Apparatus: 

Vessel fisheries— Hand 
lines 


1 529 


Shore fisheries— Hand 
lines 




422 


Shore and accessory property. 






33, 000 
53, 820 




96, 000 
42,585 




243,000 


Cash capital 




151,915 






Total 




271, 767 




201, 636 




359, 877 




833, 280 







PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



81 



PRODUCTS. 

The total number of cod landed in 1915 amounted to 3,801,58G, the 
second largest number ever landed in one year on the Pacific coast, 
with a round weight of 38,015,860 pounds. The cured weight of these 
fish amounted to 15,199,314 pounds, which had a value of $501,568 as 
delivered at the home ports. As the companies prepare and market 
their own fish in a dried, boneless, pickled, etc., condition, the ultimate 
returns received by the companies will be much larger than is shown 
in this table. 

The vessel fisheries produced 10,934,284 pounds of cured products, 
valued at $360,322, Avhile the shore fisheries produced 4,265,030 
pounds, valued at $141,246. 

Washington leads in the total quantity produced and the value of 
same, followed by California and Alaska in the order named. Nearly 
all of the shore stations operated in Alaska are owned by Cali- 
fornians. 

Products of the Cod Fisheries of the Pacific Coast in 1915. 





Cod, dry-salted. 


Cod tongues. 


Cod oil. 


Fisheries. 


Number. 


Round 

weight. 


Prepared 

weight. 


Value. 


Weight. 


Value. 


Weight. 


Value. 


VESSEL. 

Alaska 


105, 500 
1,374,571 
1,253,500 


Pounds. 

1,055,000 
13, 745, 710 
12, 535, 000 


Pounds. 

422, 000 
5, 498, 284 
5, 014, 000 


$13, 926 
180, 934 
165, 462 


Pounds. 




Pounds. 




Washington 


30, 000 
7,400 


$2, 090 
370 


















Total 


2, 733, 571 


27, 335, 710 


10,934,284 


360, 322 


37, 400 


2,460 












SHORE. 

Alaska 


al,.068,015 


10, 680, 150 


4,265,030 


141,246 


18, 000 


900 


825 


$33 






Total: 

Alaska 


1, 170, 000 
1,374,571 
1, 253, 500 


11,700,000 
13, 745, 710 
12, 535, 000 


4,680,000 
5, 498, 284 
5, 014, 000 


154,440 
180, 934 
165, 462 


18, 000 

30, 000 

7,400 


900 

2,090 

370 


825 


33 


Washington 




California 














3, 801, 586 


38,015,860 


15,199,314 


501, 568 


55, 400 


3,360 


6 825 


33 



a Includes 3,515 stockfish, with a round weight of 35,150 pounds and a prepared weight of 7,030 pounds* 
valued at $732. 
& Represents 110 gallons. 

THE FISHING FLEET IN 1915. 



The following table shows a list of the vessels engaged in the cod- 
fishery during 1915, together with the names and home ports of the 
owners, the net tonnage of the vessels, and the number of fishermen, 
members of the dress gang, and others employed aboard the vessels, 
also the number of dories used in fishing : 



82 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



The Pacific Coast Codfishing Fleet in 1915. 





Rig. 


Owner. 


Home port. 


Net 
ton- 
nage. 


Crew. 


Do- 
ries. 


Name. 


Fisher- 
men. 


Dress 

gang. 


Others. 


ALASKA. 

Nonpareil 

Pirate 


Gas. s. 

Gas. s. 
Gas. s. 
< ras. s. 
Gas. s. 
Gas. s. 


Alaska Codfish Co.. . 

Union Fish Co 

And. Gros void 

K nute Knutson 

Roe& Follett 

do 


Unga 


31 
30 

28 
12 
35 
19 


6 
G 
6 
6 
6 
6 




2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 


6 


Pirate Cove . . . 
Sand Point . . . 
N. W. Harbor. 
Nome 


6 


Lottie 


6 


Highland Queen. 

Challenge 

Silver Wave 


2 
6 


do 


6 










Total 


155 


36 




11 


32 




Sen. 

Sch. 
Sch. 

Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 

Sch. 
Sch. 


Matheson Fisheries 
Co. 

do 

Robinson Fisheries 
Co. 

do 

Northern Codfish Co. 
Pacific Coast Cod- 
fish Co. 

do 

do 


Anacortes 

do 

do 

do 

Seat tie 

do 

do 

do 




WASHINGTON. 

Azalea 


327 

252 
220 

413 

138 
235 

171 
328 


23 

22 
21 

25 
10 

20 

12 
23 


12 

11 
12 

14 

7 
12 

8 
13 


3 

3 
3 

3 
2 
3 

3 
3 


23 


Fanny Dutard... 
Alice 


22 
21 


Wawona 

Fortuna 

John A 


25 
10 
20 


Maid of Orleans.. 
Chas. R. Wilson.. 


12 
23 


Total 


2,084 


156 


89 


23 


156 




Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 


Union Fish Co 

do 


San Francisco . 
do 




CALIFORNIA. 

Galilee 


328 
324 
233 
281 
370 
392 
247 


24 
24 
14 
21 
24 
24 
15 


14 
14 
10 
12 
14 
14 
10 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 


24 


Sequoia 


24 


Vega 

Glendale 


do 


do 


14 


Alaska Codfish Co 


do 


21 


City of Papeete... 
Maweema 


do 


do 


24 


do 


do 


24 


Ottillie Fjord 


Sch. 


Pacific States Trad- 
ing Co. 


do 


15 


Total 


2,175 


146 


88 


21 


146 












Grand total. 


4,414 


338 


177 


55 


334 













THE TRANSPORTING FLEET IN 1915. 

The following list shows the vessels employed in the transporting 
of fish from the various shore stations in Alaska and the carrying 
of supplies to or between those stations, together with the owners 
and home ports of same, also the net tonnage of these vessels and the 
number of persons employed on them. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



83 



Transporting Vessels Employed in the Codfisheries of the Pacific Co\st 

in 1915. 



Name. 


Rig. 


Owner. 


Home port. 


Net 
ton- 
nage. 


Crew. 


ALASKA. 


Gas. s. 
Gas. s. 
Gas. s. 
Gas. s. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 


Union Fish Co . 


Pirate Cove 

do 


7 
30 
12 
31 
14 
17 

9 


2 
3 


Pirate « , 


do 


Lena 


And. Grosvold 


Sand Point 

Unga 


3 

3 




Alaska Codfish ( o.. 


Martha 


Union Fish Co 


Pirate Cove 

Pavlof 


2 
2 


Volcano 


do 


Pitti Sing 


A. Komedal 


Unga 


2 










Total 


120 


17 




Gas. s. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Gas. s. 


Union Fish Co. . 


San Francisco. . . 
.do 




CALIFORNIA. 

Golden State 


223 
266 

230 
9 


g 


Allen A 


Alaska Codfish Co 


o 


Bertha Dolbeer 


Pacific States Trading Co. . 


.do. 


6 


Union 


Union Fish Co 


.do. 


2 










Total 


728 


22 














1,594 


55 













a Fished part of the year. b Wrecked early in year. 

ALASKA SHORE STATIONS OPERATED IN 1915. 

The shore stations here noted were all operated during the year 
1915. In addition there were in reserve the Eagle Harbor station 
of the Union Fish Co. and the Squaw Harbor station of Mr. John II. 
Nelson. 

Shore Codfishing Stations Operated in Alaska in 1915. 



Name. 


Island on which 
located. 


Owner. 


Headquarters. 


Unga 




Alaska Codfish Co 


San Francisco. 


Squaw Harbor . 


....do .. 


do 


Do. 


Kellys Rock 


...do 


do 


Do. 


Company Harbor . 


Sannak 


do 


Do. 


Moffets Cove. 


..do 


do 


Do. 


Dora Harbor 


Unimak 


do 


Do. 


Squaw Harbor 


Unga . 


John H. Nelson 


Unga, Alaska. 


Hard Scratch 


....do.. 


R. H. Johnson 


Sand I'oini . Alaska. 


Northwest Harbor 


Herendeen 

Popof 

Herendeen 


Pacific States Trading Co 


San Francisco. 


Pirate Cove 


Do. 


Northwest Harbor 


do 


Do. 


Sanborn Harbor 


Nagai 


do 


Do. 


Unga 


Unga 


do 


Do. 


Pavlof Harbor 


Sannak 


do 


Do. 


Johnson Harbor 


..do 


do 


Do. 


Dora Harbor 


Unimak 


do 


Do. 


Unga 


Unga 




Unga, Alaska. 











84 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



SUMMARY OF CATCH. 

The following table gives a complete summary of all the codfish 
secured in the vessel and shore fisheries from the inception of the 
industry and carried to the home ports in Washington and Cali- 
fornia. No effort has been made to include the cod consumed lo- 
cally in Alaska, which, in the aggregate, amounts to considerable, 
as it forms the principal article of diet along a considerable stretch 
of Alaska's coast line. This table shoAvs that 54,052,993 fish were 
secured in the vessel fishery and 25,368,468 in the shore fishery, or a 
grand total of 79,421,461 fish. 

Summary of Cod Catch. 



Year. 


Vessel 

fishery. 


Shore 
fishery. 


Total. 


Year. 


Vessel 
fishery. 


Shore 
fishery. 


Total. 


1863 


Number. 

7,100 

54,500 

225,000 

724,000 

943,400 

580, 000 

1,032,000 

1,467,000 

926,000 

305,000 

563,000 

369,000 

362,000 

811,000 

779, 000 

902,000 

1,301,000 

1,002,000 

907,000 

1,038,000 

1,485,000 

1,373,000 

988,000 

800,000 

827,000 

674,000 

327,000 

365,000 


Number. 


Number. . 

7,100 

54,500 

225,000 

724,000 

943, 100 

580,000 

1,032,000 

1,467,000 

920,000 

305,000 

563,000 

369,000 

362,000 

84 4,000 

880,000 

1,127,000 

1,499,000 

1,203,000 

1,061,000 

1,241,000 

1, 720, 000 

1,622,000 

1,374,000 

1,183,000 

1,126,000 

1,046,000 

816,000 

1,138,000 


1891 


Number. 

5S3,000 

775,000 

666,000 

698,000 

765,000 

837,000 

850,000 

342.000 

783,000 

S17.000 

787,000 

1,229,000 

1,463, 800 

1,546,524 

2,332,133 

2,492,618 

1,490,230 

2, 028, 000 

1, 748, 155 

1,291,500 

1,542,000 

1,348,000 

1,481,26(1 

2,283,202 

2,733,571 


Number. 
662,000 
700,000 
660,000 
305,000 
286,000 


Number. 
1,245,000 
1,475,000 
1,326,000 
1,003,000 
1,051,000 


1864 




1892 


1865 




1893 


1866 




1894 


1867 




1895 


1868 




1896 


837.000 


1869 




1897 


511,000 

450,000 

722, 000 

909, 000 

727,000 

1,140,000 

9S5, 000 

1,002,000 

1, 282, 000 

1,020,632 

1,51s, 951 

1, 146, 403 

910,361 

683,475 

992,000 

997,934 

804,097 

1,585,600 

1,068,015 


1,361,000 


1870 




1898 


792, 000 


1871 




1900 


1,505,000 


1872 




1, 720, 000 


1873 




1901 


1,514,000 


1874 




| 1902 


2,369,000 


1875 




i 1903 


■ 2,448,800 
2,548,524 
3,614,133 


1876 


30,000 
101,000 
227,000 
198,000 
201,000 
154,000 
203,000 
235, 000 
249,000 
386, 000 
383,000 
299, 000 
372,000 
489,000 
773,000 


1901 


1877 


1 1905 


1878 


1906 


3,513,250 


1879 


1907 


3,009,181 


1880 


1908 


3,174, 103 
2,658,516 


1881 


1909 


1882 


1910 


1,974,975 
2,534,000 


1883 


1911 


1884 


1912 


2, 345, 934 


1885 


1913 


2, 285, 357 
3,868,802 


1886 


1914 


1887 


1915 


3, 801 , 586 


188*< 


Total.... 




1889 


54, 052, 993 


25,368,468 


79,421,461 


1890 









SUMMARY OF VESSEL-FISHING DATA. 

The following table shows, in a summarized form, the available 
data covering the vessel fishery for cod on the Pacific coast from its 
inception in 1863 to 1915, inclusive. In this table is shown, by years, 
the number of vessels from the different States fishing on the various 
grounds, and the catch made on each ground. As separate data of 
the catches of the small vessels operating with the Alaska shore 
stations as their base have not been kept, it has not been possible to 
include these in this table, and they are merged into the shore-station 
data. The total catch of the fleet since 1863 amounts to 54,052,993 
cod. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



85 






Summary of Vessel Fishing, 1863 to 1915. 

CALIFORNIA VESSELS. 



Years. 



18C3. 
18G4. 
1805. 
1806. 
18(57. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897 . 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 



Number of vessels engaged. 



Okhotsk 

Sea. 



Total 



12 
5 

2 



3 
5 
4 
5 
6 
5 
5 
7 
11 
4 
4 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 



Bering 

Sea. 



North 
Pacific. 



10 
8 
4 
5 
7 
5 
8 
6 
6 
7 
1 
2 
6 
2 



Total. 



Total 
net ton- 
nage. 



Number of fish caught. 



1 

2 

7 

18 

20 

10 

21 

22 

13 

6 

10 

7 

5 

11 

11 

10 

12 

7 

7 

13 
14 
14 
10 



2 
3 
6 
5 
6 
5 
6 
6 
5 
3 
5 
6 
6 
9 
8 
7 
11 
11 
8 
7 
5 
3 
3 
5 
5 
6 
7 



120 



449 



1,502 



506 



1,858 
1,441 
1,441 
2, 260 
2,837 
3,222 
2,287 
1,939 
1,558 
1,391 

623 

715 
1,232 
1,335 
1,460 
1,393 
1,518 
1,512 
1,393 

780 
1,174 
1,305 
1,540 
2,034 
1,899 
1,939 
2,928 
3,237 
2,400 
2,259 
1,416 
1,074 

993 
1,554 
1,554 
1,783 
2,175 



Okhotsk 
Sea. 



7,100 

50,000 

210,000 

588, 000 



377, 000 



1,027,000 
53'', 000 
130, 000 
352,000 



333, 000 
426, 000 
651,000 
843, 000 
915, 000 
764,000 
712,000 
983,000 
1,007,000 
493,000 
428, 000 
331, 000 
311,000 
327,000 
317,000 
171,000 
125,000 
341,000 
169,000 
248,000 
125,000 



Bering 
Sea. 



4, 500 



170,000 
223,000 
636,000 
692, 000 
271,800 
420,000 
80,000 



15,785,900 



132, 000 
381,000 
366,000 
296,000 
239,000 
185,000 
294, 000 



48,000 
387,000 
487,000 
215,000 
420,000 
405,000 
493,000 
554,000 
292, 000 
580,000 
623,000 
702,000 
933,000 
867,300 
770,000 
700, 133 
786,000 
470,000 
490,000 
520,000 
380, 000 
439,000 
525,000 
587,000 
781,202 
1,134,500 



16,486,635 



North 
Pacific. 



15,000 
136,000 



203,000 



440,000 
394,000 
175,500 
211,000 

369,000 
362, 000 
481,000 
353,000 
251,000 
458, 000 
87,000 
143,000 
194, 000 
121,000 



199, 000 

133,000 

311,000 

69,000 



69,200 



139,000 
130,000 
150,000 

119, OCX) 



5,712,700 



Total. 



7,100 
54,380 

225, 000 

724, (XX) 

943, 400 

580, (XX) 

1,032,000 

1,467, (MX) 

9 6, (XX) 

3UV)<X) 

563,000 

369,000 

362,000 

814,000 

779, 000 

902,000 

1,301, 000 

1,00-', (XX) 

907,000 

1,038,000 

1,485,000 

1,373,000 

988,000 

800,000 

827,000 

674,000 

327,000 

365,000 

558,000 

612,000 

556,000 

589,000 

653,000 

618,000 

554,000 

292,000 

580,000 

623,000 

702,000 

933,000 

1,037,300 

1,062,200 

1,336,133 

1,478,000 

741,800 

910,000 

600,000 

380,000 

439,000 

664,000 

717,000 

931,202 

1,253.500 

39,960,635 



86 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



Summary of Vessel Fishing, 1863 to 1915 — Continued. 

WASHINGTON VESSELS. 





Number of vessels engaged. 


Total 
net ton- 
nage. 


Number of fish caught. 


Years. 


Okhotsk 
Sea. 


Boring 
Sea. 


North 
Pacific. 


Total. 


Okhotsk 
Sea. 


Bering 
Sea. 


North 
Pacific. 


Total. 


1891 




1 

2 
1 
1 
1 

2 
3 
1 
2 
2 
1 
3 
3 
6 
9 
5 
5 
7 
8 
6 
7 
5 
5 
8 
7 


1 

3 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 


1 

2 
1 

1 
1 
2 
3 
1 
2 
2 
1 
3 
4 
6 

10 
8 
5 
8 
8 
6 
7 
6 
6 
9 
8 


142 

210 
142 
142 
142 
508 
361 
89 
286 
286 
142 
368 
490 
599 
1,610 

1, 425 
974 

1,622 
1,622 
1, 249 
1,484 
1,251 
1,604 

2, 4X2 
2,084 




25. 000 

163, 000 

110, 000 

109, 000 

112, 000 

219, 000 

296, 000 

50, 000 

203, 000 

194, 000 

85, 000 

a 296, 000 

6 331,500 

c 484, 324 

d 996, 000 

734, 618 

748, 430 

1, OOS, 000 

1, 148, 155 

911,500 

1,103,000 

e 550, 000 

624,260 

/ 1,143, 000 

1,220,571 




25 oor 


1892 








163 OOC 


1893 








110 ooc 


1894 








109, OOC 
112, OOC 
219, OOC 
296, OOC 
50 OOC 


1895 








1896.. 








1897 








1898 








1899.. 








203 OOC 


1900. . 








194 OOC 


1901 . 








85 OOC 


1902... 








290 OOC 


1903 . . 






95, 000 


426 50C 


1904 . . 






484 324 


1905 . 








996, 000 
1,014 618 


1906.. 






280, 000 


1907 






748 430 


1908 . 






110, 000 


1,118 000 


1909 . . 






1,148 155 


1910... 








911 500 


1911.. 








1,103 000 


1912.. 






134, 000 
140, 000 
209,000 
154,000 


684 000 


1913 . . 






764 260 


1914 






1,352 000 


1915 






1,374,571 








Total. 














12, 865, 358 


1,122,000 


13, 987, 358 

















a Includes catch by British Columbia schooner Blakeley (144 tons), 107,000 fish. 
b Includes catch by British Columbia schooner Blakeley (144 tons), 115,000 fish, 
c Includes catch by British Columbia schooner Blakeley (144 tons), 100,000 fish. 
d Includes catch by British Columbia schooner Blakeley (144 tons), 78,000 Bsh. 
« Includes catch by schooner Albert Meyer (398 tons), British Columbia, 260 fish. 
/ Includes catch by schooner Albert Meyer (398 tons), British Columbia, 100,000 fish. 

Note.— In addition 6 Alaska vessels, with total net tonnige of 167, caught in the North Pacific 105,500 
fish. These data have been included in the " Recapitulation." 

RECAPITULATION. 



Years. 



1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1SS1 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1SSS 
1880 
1890 



Vessels. 


Total 
number. 


Total 

net 

tonnage. 


1 


120 


2 

7 




449 


18 




20 
10 




1,502 


21 
22 
13 








6 
10 

7 
5 








506 


11 
11 
10 
12 








1,858 


7 


1,441 


7 


1,441 


13 


2, 260 


14 


2,837 


14 


3,222 


10 


2,287 


8 


1,939 


7 


1,558 


6 


1,391 


2 


623 


3 


715 



Total 

number 

offish 

caught. 



7,100 

54,500 

225,000 

724,000 

943,400 

580,000 

1,032.000 

1,467,000 

926,000 

305,500 

563,000 

369,000 

362,000 

814,000 

779,000 

902,000 

1,301.000 

1,002,000 

907,000 

1,038,000 

1,485,000 

1,373,000 

988,000 

800,000 

827.000 

674,000 

327,000 

365,000 



Years. 



1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1X99. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
I '.MK. 
I '.109. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 



Total. 



Vessels. 



Total 
number. 



7 
7 
7 
6 
7 
8 
7 
2 
7 
7 
7 

12 
12 
13 
21 
19 
13 
15 
13 
9 
10 
10 
11 
15 
21 



Total 

net 

tonnage 



1,374 
1.545 
1,602 
1 . 535 
1,660 
2,020 
1.754 
869 
1,460 
1,591 
1,682 
2, 402 
2,389 
2,538 
4 . 538 

1 . 662 
3,374 
3,881 
3.038 
2,323 
2,477 

2. xi).-) 
3, 158 
4,265 
4,426 



Total 
number 

of fish 
caught. 



583.00C 
775, OOC 
666, OOC 
6! is, OOC 
765, OOC 
837, OOC 
850. OOC 
342. OOC 
783. OOC 
817. OOC 
787, 00( 
1,229.00( 
1.463. SOI 
1.546.52- 
2,332,13; 
2,492.61; 
1,490,231 
2,028.001 
l,748,l& 
1,291.501 
1,542.001 
l,348,00i 
1,481.26 
2,283,20 
2,628,07 



53,947,99 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



87 



DETAILED DATA OF THE FISHING FLEET FROM 1863 TO 1915. 

The table following shows in detail the operations of the cod- 
fishing fleet from the inception of the industry in 1863 to 1915, inclu- 
sive. The name, rig, and net tonnage of each vessel, the dates of 
her departure and return, on what ground she fished, and the num- 
ber of fish taken are all shown." No detailed data are available for 
18G6 and 1869, while the individual vessel data for 1867 and L868 
are incomplete. From 1863 to 1890, both inclusive, the data relate 
to California exclusively. Owing to the variation in (he weight 
of fish from the various grounds, and also the considerable variation 
in weight of fish from the same ground in different years, no effort 
has been made to show the weight of the catch, while the data on the 
prices realized are so fragmentary that this item also has been 
omitted, as it would be nothing but a guess at best. 

Operations of the Cod Fleet by Years. 



Name of vessel. 


Rig. 


Net 
ton- 
nage. 


Date of 
sailing. 


Date of 
return. 


Fishing grounds. 


Number 
offish 
taken. 


1863. 

CALIFORNIA, b 

Timandra c 


Brig. 

Brig. 
Sen. 


120 






Okhotsk Sea 


7,100 








Okhotsk Sea. . 


1864. 
Timandra 


120 






50 (XX) 


Alert 






Bering Sea.. 


1 .".IMI 














Total 




54,500 




Sch. 
Seh. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 








Okhotsk Sea 




1865. 
Equity 


63 
84 
75 
71 
91 
20 
45 




Flying Dart 






do 




H. L. Ruggles 






do 




J. D. Sanborn 






do 


210,000 


Mary Cleveland . 






do 




Taccon 






do 




Porpoise 


Mar. 27 


July t 7 


Shumagin Islands d. .. 


15,000 






Total 


ll'.i 


225, (XX) 




Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 






Shumagin Islands 

do 




1867. 

Sanborn . . 




84,000 


Porpoise 








Hti.lHH) 


Sarah Louise 








do 


36,000 


















136 




Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 








Shumagin [slands . .. 
do 




1868. 
Porpoise t 




63,000 


Mandrago 








v.-,,(HH) 


Sanborn 








do 


60,000 




















206,000 



a For the data covering the San Francisco fleet from 1870 to 1914, inclusive, Hie writer is In lebte i to the 
Union Fish Co. (formerly the McCollam Fishing A' Trading Co.), of San Francisco, which placed Us in > Ba- 
ilable records at his disposal. 

b From 1863 to 1890, inclusive, data relate to California exclusively. 

c Trading voyage. 

d First fare from the Shumagins. 

e Made two trips. 



88 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



Operations of the Cod Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 


Rig. 


Net 

ton- 
nage. 


Date of 
sailing. 


Date of 
return. 


Fishing grounds. 


Number 
offish 
taken. 


1870. 

Clara R Sutill 










Okhotsk Sea 


92,000 
18 000 


Constitution 


Bkn. 


257 






do.. 








do . 


92,000 
95 000 


Domingo 


Bark. 









do . 










do.. 


85 000 


Cold Hunter 


Hark. 
Bark. 








do... 


125,000 
125, 000 
100 000 


Legal Tender 








do.. 


Union 








do. 




! 






do... 


91 000 


Witch Queen 










do .. 


62' 000 

102, 000 

40,000 

55 000 


Alaska 


J5ark. 
Bark. 








do... 


Shooting Star 








do.. 


Arizona 








Shumagin Islands 

do 


Ann Eliza 










20'000 


Daisy 










do.. 


20 000 


J. H. Roscoe. . 


Sch. 


79- 






do.. 


65 000 


Mary Zephyr 






do.. 


35 000 


Porpoise . . 


Sch. 








do... 


38 000 










do 


32,000 


Sarali Louise. 


Sch. 








do 


35,000 
55 000 


Scotland 








do 


Wild Gazelle 


Sch. 


114 






do.. 


85,000 










Total 




1,407,000 












Okhotsk Sea 


1871. 

Union 




126, 000 


Legal Tender 


Bark. 
Bark. 








do 


135, 000 
125, 000 


Gold Hunter 








do 


Clara R. Sutill... 








do 


66, 000 


Domingo 


Bark. 








do 


80, 000 


Daisy 








Shumagin Islands 

do 


15, 000 


Shoot ing Star 










35,000 




Bark. 








..do.- 


92, 000 

85, 000 
35. 000 


S. H. Merrill.. 








do.., 


Flying Mist 










do 


Scotland 










do 


46,000 


Alfred Adams 


Sch. 
Sch. 


64 
79 






do 


42,000 


J. H . R,oscoe 






do 


44,000 












Total 




926, 000 




Bark. 








Okhotsk Sea.... 




1872. 
Gold Hunter 




130, 000 


Scotland 








do 




Legal Tender 


Bark. 

Sch. 

Sch. 








Shumagin Islands 

do 


25,000 


J. H. Roscoe 


79 
114 






58,500 
61,000 


Wild Gazelle 






do 


Flying Mist 






do 


31,000 
















Total 




305, 000 




Bark. 




Apr. 13 
Apr. 26 
Apr. 19 
Apr. 10 
May 15 
Apr. 19 
Mar. 10 
Mar. 7 
July 5 
July 15 









1873. 
Gold Hunter 




125, 000 


Clara R. Sutill... 


do 


87,000 


Page 


Sch. 

Bark. 

Bark. 

Sch. 

Sch. 


125 

108 
64 






76, 000 


Energy 






64, 000 


Domingo 








Wild Gazelle 




Shumagin Islands 

do 


89, 000 


A lfred Adams 




40, 000 


Flying Mist 




do 


28, 000 


Alfred Adams 


Sch. 


64 




do 


30, 000 






do 


24, (KM) 














Total 




563, 000 




Sch. 

Bark. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 




Apr. 12 
Apr. 13 
Apr. 12 
Apr. 15 
Apr. 23 


July 22 
Aug. 23 
Sept. 5 
Aug. 15 
Aug. 20 
Oct. 18 
Oct. 11 


do 




1874. 
San Diego 


36 

64 
114 


28,000 


Energy 


80, 0(H) 


Joseph Wooley 


do 


90, 000 


Alfred Adams 


do 


56,000 


Wild Gazelle 


do 


78,000 


SanDiego 


do 


22,000 


Tage 


125 






15,000 










Total 




369,000 

















PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 89 

Operations of the Cod Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1875. 



Undaunted 

Alfred Adams.. 
Wild Gazelle... 
Dashing Wave. 
Page . . 



Total. 



1876. 



Alfred Adams. 

Alaska 

Do 

Selma 

Page 

Energy 

San Diego 

Wild Gazelle.. 

Hesperian 

Josephine 

Constitution . . 



Total. 



Rig. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Bark. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Brig. 
Bkn. 



1877. 



Page 

Constitution.. 

Fremont 

Brontes 

Alaska 

J. H. Roscoe.. 

Energy 

Alfred Adams. 

Do 

Wild Gazelle.. 
Pato a 



Total. 



1878. 



General Miller... 

J. II. Roscoe 

May Queen 

Sarah 

Three Sisters &.. 
Wild Gazelle.... 
Adelaide Cooper. 

Constitution 

Fremont 

Page 



Total. 



1879. 



Wild Gazelle 


Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Bark. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Brig. 


Sarah 


Undaunted 


H. L. Tiernan 


General Miller 




J. H. Roscoe 


Adelaide Cooper 


Fremont 


Constitution 


Page 


Glencoe 





Net 
ton- 
nage. 



68 

64 

108 

141 

125 



506 



64 
32 



125 



Date of 
sailing. 



Mar. 15 

Mar. 29 

Apr. 16 

Apr. 18 



Jan. 9 
Mar. 9 
July 19 
Mar. 9 
Apr. 1 
Aug. 15 
36 
114 ! Apr. 12 

Apr. 7 

207 Apr. 12 
257 June 20 



Date of 
return. 



Aug. 20 
Sept. 3 



July 
July 



Sch. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Bark. 
Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Bark. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 



125 

257 
345 



32 
79 



64 



114 
45 



108 
79 



105 
62 
114 
300 
257 
345 
125 



Apr. 17 
Apr. 21 
Apr. 22 
Apr. 25 
Mar. 25 
Apr. 28 
...do.... 
Apr. 4 
June 29 
Apr. 6 
Mar. — 



May 18 

Apr. 9 

Apr. 3 

Mar. 29 



Apr. 6 
Apr. 16 
Apr. 11 
Apr. 20 
Apr. 9 



114 
105 

68 
145 
108 
32 
79 
300 
345 
257 
125 
169 



1,847 



Apr. 2 

Mar. 16 

Mar. 15 

May 3 

Apr. 3 

Mar. 11 

Feh. 28 



July 

Aug. 

..do 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

..do. 



Fishing grounds. 



Shumagin Islands. 

do 

do 

do 



Shumagin Islands. 
do 



....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Okhotsk Sea. 

do 

do 



Aug. 17 
Sept. 14 
..do.... 

Lost 

Sept. 11 
Aug. 4 
Aug. 30 
June 17 
Aug. 25 
Sept. 4 



Okhotsk Sea. 

do 

do 



Sept. 25 
Aug. 30 
Aug. 7 
Aug. 24 



Aug. 30 
Oct. 2 
Sept. 12 
Sept. 29 
Sept. 10 



Mav 13 



Sept, 20 
Aug. 4 
June 21 
Sept. 10 
Sept. 21 
Sept. 10 
Aug. 1 
Sept. 28 
Oct. 1 
Sept. 21 
Oct. 8 
Nov. 7 



Shumagin Islands. 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Okhotsk Sea 



Shumagin Islands. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Okhotsk Sea. 

....do 

....do 

....do 



Shumagin Islands. 

....do 

do 

....do 

....do 



do 

do 

Okhotsk Sea. 

do 

do 

do 

do , 



Nil in her 
of fish 
taken. 



46, (XX) 
56,000 
93,000 

95, (XX) 
72, XX) 



362, (XX) 



62, 000 
28,000 

70, (XX) 

70,000 
73,000 
65,000 

19, 000 
94,000 

150, (XX) 

130,000 

53, 000 



814,000 



62,000 
133,000 

20N .000 



16,000 
61,000 
70,000 
67,000 
44, (XX) 
95,000 
23,000 



79,000 



23,000 

20,000 

75,000 

78,000 

35,000 

20,000 

216,000 

lio.ooo 

250. (XX) 

45,000 



902,000 



85,000 
71,000 
63,000 
97,000 
80,000 

10, (XX) 

52,000 
225,000 
240,000 
2< )5 ,000 

■10. (XX) 

133,000 



1,301,000 



a Sailed from Hongkong, China, and landed cargo at Portland, Oreg.; the only cargo of cod ever landed 
here. 
t> Lost. 



90 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



Operations of the Cod Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1880. 



Wild Gazelle. 

Arago 

Bage 

Glencoe 

Fremont 

Constitution . 
San Luis 



Total. 



1881. 



Wild Gazelle. 

Page 

Arago 

Constitution . 

Glencoe 

Fremont 

San Luis 



Total. 



1882. 



Ariel 

Page 

General Miller. 
H. L. Tiernan.. 
Dashing Wave. 

Adrianna 

Isabel 

Tropic Bird 

Arago 

San Luis 

Glencoe 

Fremont 

Constitution . . . 



Total. 



1883. 



W. H. Stevens. 
Dashing Wave. 
John Hancock . 
Francis Alice.. 

Bonanza 

Tropic Bird 

Isabel 

Arago 

Hera 

San Luis 

Constitution. . . 

Glencoe 

Fremont 

Una 



Total. 



1884. 

Dashing Wave 

John Hancock 

Helen W. Almy 

Hera 

Arago 

Isabel 

W. H. Meyer 

Tropic Bird 

Jane A. Falkenburg. 

San Luis 

Constitution 

Fremont 

Glencoe 

Francis Alice 



Total. 



Rig. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Brig. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Brig. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Brig. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Brig. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Brig. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 

Brig. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 



fich. 

Sch. 

Bark. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Brig. 

Brig. 

Bkn. 

Bl-n. 

Bl n. 

Bkn. 

Brig. 

Sch. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



114 

176 
109 
169 
328 
276 
275 



1,441 



114 
109 
176 

276 
169 
328 
275 



1,441 



94 
109 
108 
142 
141 

95 
175 
172 
176 
275 
169 
328 
276 



2,260 



139 
141 

167 
125 
128 
172 
175 
176 
369 
275 
276 
169 
328 
197 



2,837 



141 
167 
298 
369 
176 
175 
256 
172 
295 
275 
276 
328 
169 
125 

3,222 



Date of 
sailing. 



Apr. 8 

May 2 

May 8 

May 1 

May 6 

May 8 

May 17 



Apr. 1 
Apr. 23 
Apr. 27 

..do 

Apr. 29 
Apr. 30 
May 6 



Mar. 18 
Mar. 20 
...do..... 
Apr. 5 
Apr. 29 
May 8 
Maiy 12 
Apr. 28 
Apr. 15 
Apr. 29 
May 4 
May 6 
May 13 



Date of 
return. 



Aug. 23 
Sept. 20 
Sept. 4 
Oct. 28 
Oct. 10 
Oct. 28 
Oct. 4 



Fishing grounds. 



Aug. 28 

Sept. 12 

Sept, 11 

Oct. 17 

Oct. 15 

Sept. 18 

Oct. 15 



Shumagin Islands. 

Okhotsk Sea 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Apr. 21 
May 7 
Mar. 29 
..do.... 
Apr. 14 
Mar. 29 
Apr. 2 
Apr. 16 
Apr. 20 
Apr. 24 
..do.... 
Apr. 25 
Apr. 28 
Apr. 30 



Mar. 22 
Mar. 23 
Apr. 2 
Apr. 9 
Apr. 11 
Apr. 13 
Apr. 18 
Apr. 20 
..do.... 
Apr. 26 
..do.... 
May 2 
May 5 



Aug. 18 
Aug. 24 

Lost 

Ashore. . 
Sept. 19 
Julv 6 
Sept. 1 
Sept. 25 
Sept. 28 
Oct. 9 
Oct, 17 
Sept.- 28 
Oct. 13 



July 27 
Sept. 21 
Aug. 22 
...do.... 
...do.... 
...do.... 
Sept, 19 
Oct, 5 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct, 
Oct, 
Sept 
Oct. 



Shumagin Islands. 

do 

Okhotsk Sea * 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Shumagin Islands. 
do 



do , 

do 

do 

do .. 

Bering Sea.. 

do 

Okhotsk Sea. 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Shumagin Islands. 

do 

Bering Sea 

do 

do..... 

do 

do 

Okhotsk Sea 

....do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Aug. 25 
July 27 
Sept. 5 
Oct. 
Oct, 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
..do... 
Oct. 6 
Oct. 1 
Oct. 27 
Oct. 25 



Bering Sea . . . 

do 

do , 

Okhotsk Sea. 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 91 

Operations of the Cod Fleet by Years— Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1885. 



Arago 

John Hancock 

Isabel 

Helen W. Almy 

Constitution 

Tropic Bird 

Francis Alice 

San Luis 

Fremont 

Jane A. Falkenburg. 



Total. 



1886. 

Isabel 

Francis Alice 

John Hancock 

Helen W. Almy 

Fremont 

Constitution 

San Luis 

Jane A. Falkenburg 



Total. 



1887. 

John Hancock 

Isabel 

Dashing Wave 

Arago 

Constitution 

Fremont.: 

Jane A. Falkenburg. 



Total. 



1888. 

Dashing Wave 

Arago 

Constitution 

Fremont 

Jane A. Falkenburg 
Isabel 



Total. 



1889. 

Fremont 

Jane A. Falkenburg. 



Rig. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Bark. 

Bkn. 

Brig. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Bark. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 



Total. 



1890. 

Vanderbilt 

Jane A. Falkenburg. 
Fremont 



Total. 



1891. 

CALIFORNIA. 



Francis Alice 

Dashing Wave 

Arago.. 

Jane A. Falkenburg. 

Fremont 

John Hancock 



Total. 



Bkn. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Bkn. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 



Net 

ton- 
nage. 



176 
167 
175 
298 
276 
172 
125 
275 
328 
295 



2,287 



175 
125 
167 

298 
328 

276 
275 
295 



1,939 



167 
175 
141 
176 
276 
328 
295 



1,558 



141 
176 

276 
328 
295 
17.5 



1,391 



3?8 
295 



623 



92 
295 
328 



715 



125 
141 
176 
295 
328 
167 

1,232 



Date of 

sailing. 



Mar. 27 
Apr. 1 
Apr. 18 
...do.... 
Apr. 22 
Apr. 25 
Apr. 28 
Apr. 30 
May 2 
May 3 



Apr. 1 

Apr. 3 

Apr. 13 
..do.... 

Apr. 23 

May 4 

May 9 

May 21 



Date of 
ti turn. 



Sept. 11 
Aug. 2 

Aug. 27 
Sept. 5 
Oct. 9 
Sept. 18 
Aug. 10 
Oct. 16 
Oct. 8 
Sept. 25 



Fishing grounds. 



Aug. 11 
July 15 

Aug. 6 
Sept. 15 
Oct. 4 
Oct. 1 
Oct. 7 
Oct. 5 



Slnimagin Islands. 

do 

do 

Bering Sea 

Okhotsk Sea 

Bering Sea 

do 

Okhotsk Sea 

do 

do 



Mar. 


20 


July 


12 


Mar. 


26 


Aug. 


25 


Apr. 


6 


Aug. 


29 


Apr. 


24 


Sept. 


4 


Apr. 


12 


Aug. 


12 


May 


4 


Sept. 


19 


May 


29 


Oct. 


5 



Mar. 16 

Apr. 12 

Apr. 25 

May 1 

May 10 



May 6 
May 23 



Apr. 13 

May — 
May 17 



Jan. 11 
Mar. 16 
Apr. 16 
Apr. 25 
May 6 
June 10 



July 21 
Sept. 2 
Aug. 29 
Sept. 19 
Sept. 23 

(a) 



Shumagin Islands. 

Bering Sea 

Shumagin Islands. 

Bering Sea 

Okhotsk Sea 

do 

do 

do 



Shumagin Islands. 

do 

do 

do 

Bering Sea 

Okhotsk Sea 

do 



Sept. 25 
..do..... 



Aug. 4 
Oct. 3 
Oct. 6 



July 7 
Apr. 16" 
Aug. 28 
Sept. 1 
Sept. 23 
Sept. 9 



Shumagin Islands. 

Bering Sea 

do 

Okhotsk Sea 

do 

Shumagin Islands. 



Okhotsk Sea . 
do 



Bering Sea... 
Okhotsk Sea. 
....do 



Bering Sea. 



Bering Sea... 
....do 

Okhotsk Sea. 
Bering Sea... 



.Number 
of fish 

taken. 



50, ooo 

64,000 

85,000 

182,000 

120,000 

79,000 

35,000 

118,000 

135,000 

120,000 



'.iss.000 



92. (MX) 

69,000 

41,000 

170,000 

1 H,000 

M.itoo 

102,000 

101, IKK) 



800.000 



76,000 
80,000 
79,000 
76,000 

1S5, (KM) 

180,000 

151,000 



827,000 



69,000 
103,000 

101. (KM) 
175,000 
136,000 



674.000 



170. (KM 

157,000 



327,000 



18,000 

1 KI.IMK) 
177, INK) 



365,000 



70,000 



87,000 
160,000 

171, (KN) 

70,000 
658,000 



a Lost. 



92 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



Operations of the Cod Fleet by* Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1891. 

WASHINGTON. 

Lizzie Colby 

1892. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Arago 

Jane A. Falkenburg 

Fremont 

John Hancock 

Hera 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Lizzie Colby. 
Moonlight... 



Total. 



1893. 



CALIFORNIA. 



John Hancock 

Francis Alice 

Arago 

Jane A. Falkenburg. 

Hera 

Fremont 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 

Lizzie Colby , 

1894. 

CALIFORNIA. 



Arago 

Fremont 

Jane A. Falkenburg. 

Hera 

Uranus 



Total 

WASHINGTON. 

Lizzie Colby 

1895. 

CALIFORNIA. 



Fremont 

Arago 

Uranus 

Jane A. Falkenburg... 

Hera 

Francis Alice 



Total 

WASHINGTON. 

Lizzie Colby 



Rig. 



Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 



Sch. 



Bkn. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 



Sch. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



142 



176 
295 
328 
167 
369 



1,335 



142 

68 



210 



167 
125 
176 
295 
369 
328 



1, 460 



142 



176 
328 
295 
369 
225 



1,393 



142 



328 
176 
225 
295 
369 
125 



1,518 



142 



Date of 
sailing. 



Apr. 
Apr. 
Apr. 

May 
May 



10 
27 
28 
6 
19 



Mar. 17 
Mar. 5 



Feb. 8 
Feb. 24 
Apr. 11 
Apr. 20 
Apr. 22 
Apr. 29 



Mar. 29 
Mar. 31 
..do...s. 
Apr. 19 
Apr. 12 



Date of 
return. 



Aug. 31 
Sept, 12 
Sept, 22 
Aug. 31 
Oct. 11 



Aug. 30 
Aug. 20 



Mar. 7« 



Aug. — 
Sept. 9 
Sept. 26 
Sept. 10 



Apr. 15 
Apr. 17 
Apr. 21 
Apr. 22 
Apr. 25 



Apr. 18 
a Lost. 



Sept. 6 
Aug. 26 
Aug. 27 
Sept. 10 
Sept, 16 



Julv 18 
Julv 20 

Aug. 11 
July 19 
Sept. 17 



Aug. 9 



Fisbing grounds. 



Bering Sea. 



Bering Sea. 

do 

....do 

do 



Okhotsk Sea. 



Bering Sea. 
....do 



Shumagin Islands. 

Bering Sea 

do 



Okhotsk Sea. 
do 



Bering Sea. 



Bering Sea. 
....do 



....do 

Okhotsk Sea 

Shumagin Islands and 
Bering Sea. 



Bering Sea. 



Bering Sea.., 
Okhotsk Sea. 
Bering Sea... 
....do 



Okhotsk Sea. 
Bering Sea... 



Bering Sea. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 93 

Operations of the Cod Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1896. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Uranus 

La Ninfa 

Jane A. Falkenburg... 

Fremont 

Arago 

Hera , 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 

Lizzie Colby , 

Emma F. Harriman a., 



Total. 



1897. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Arago 

Fremont 

Jane A. Falkenburg... 

Hera 

Uranus 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Lizzie Colby. 

Blakeley 

Swan 



Total. 



1898. 



CALIFORNIA. 



Fremont. 

Anna 

Uranus.. 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 

Lizzie S. Sorrenson 

1899. 



CALIFORNIA. 



Anna 

Fremont . 

Araw 

Uranus... 
Czarina . . 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Lizzie Colby. 
Blakeley 



Total. 



Rig. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Bark. 



Sch. 
Bkn. 

Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 

Bgn. 

Sch. 



Bkn. 

Sch. 

Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Bgn. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



225 
119 
295 
328 
176 
369 



1,512 



142 
366 



508 



176 
328 
295 
369 
225 



1,393 



142 
144 

75 



361 



328 
227 
225 



780 



89 



227 
328 
176 
225 
218 



1,174 



142 
144 



286 



Date of 

sailing. 



Apr. 5 
Apr. 7 
Apr. 11 
Apr. 15 

...do 

Apr. 26 



Apr. 8 



Mar. 30 
Apr. 2 

...do 

Apr. 4 
Apr. 26 



Apr. 5 



May 9 



Mar. 30 

Apr. 1 

Apr. 2 

Apr. 5 

Apr. 19 



Date of 
return. 



July 

Sept, 

Aug. 

Aug. 
July 
Sept. 



Fishing grounds. 



Sept. 13 



July 15 

Sept. 8 
Sept. 9 
Sept. 13 
Aug. 21 



Bering Sea... 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

< Okhotsk Sea. 



Bering Sea. 

....do 



Boring Sea. 

do 

do 



.do. 
.do. 



Bering Sea. 

do 

do 



Aug. 31 
Oct. 2 
Sept. 22 



Aug. 16 
Sept. 17 
Sept. 13 
Aug. 25 
Oct. 1 



Bering Sea. 
do 



.do. 



Bering Sea. 



Bering Sea. 
....do 



Number 
offish 
taken. 



81,000 

50,000 

115,000 

167,000 

80,000 

125,000 



618,000 



109,000 
110,000 



219,000 



90,000 
167,000 
124,000 

40, (XX) 



554,000 



111. INK) 
Kill. (KM) 

55,000 



269,000 



152,000 

'.I.".. I NX) 

15,000 



292,000 



50,000 



BeringSea 117. ■"») 

....do 157,000 

...do BO.OOO 

do B3,000 

do 143,000 



580,000 



93,000 

11(1,(100 






a Cargo was taken to San Francisco and sold there. 



94 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



Operations of the Cod Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1900. 



CALIFORNIA. 



Stanley 

Fremont 

Abbie M. Peering. 

Anna 

Arago 

Uranus 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Lizzie Colby. 
Blakeley 



Total 

1901. 

CALIFORNIA. 



Uranus 

Fremont 

Harriet G 

Stanley 

City of Papeete. 
Arago 



Total 

WASHINGTON. 

Lizzie Colby 

1902. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Stanley 

Fremont 

Uranus 

Arago 

Harriet G 

City of Papeete 

Mar v and Ida 

J. G. Wall 

Anna a , 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Lizzie Colby. 
Carrier Dove. 

Total.. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Blakeley 

1903. 

CALIFORNIA. 



Mary and Ida... 

Arago 

Fremont 

Uranus 

City of Papeete. . 

Harriet G 

EmmaClaudina. 
Stanley 



Total. 



Rig. 



Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Bgn, 



Sch. 

Bkn. 

Brig. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Brig. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 



Bgn. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Brig. 

Sch. 

Sch. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



253 
328 
96 
227 
176 
225 



1,305 



142 
144 



286 



225 

328 
188 
253 
370 
176 



1,510 



142 



253 
328 
225 
176 
188 
370 
174 
93 
227 



2,034 



142 

82 



224 



144 



174 
176 
328 
225 
370 
188 
1S5 
253 

1 . 899 



Date of 
sailing. 



Apr. 3 

..do 

Apr. 10 
Apr. 9 
Apr. 13 
Mar. 26 



Mar. 27 

Apr. 2 

Apr. 3 

Apr. 11 

Apr. 13 

Apr. 16 



Mar. 22 
Apr. 1 
..do.... 
Apr. 4 
...do.... 
Apr. 11 
..do.... 
June 15 



Mar. 20 

Mar. 22 

Mar. 28 

Apr. 1 
...do.... 

Apr. 2 

Apr. 9 

Apr. 21 



Date of 
return. 



Sept. 1 
Aug. 30 
July 1 
Aug. 24 
Sept, 18 
Sept. 13 



Julv 7 
Aug. 18 
Sept. 7 
Sept. 27 
Sept, 7 
Sept. 11 



Aug. 25 
Aug. 18 
Aug. 15 
Sept, 28 
Aug. 26 
Aug. 29 
Aug. 21 
Sept. 8 



Aug. 23 
Julv 29 
Sept, 2 
Aug. 21 
Aug. 12 
Auk. 29 
...do.... 
Sept. 18 



Fishing grounds. 



Bering Sea. 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 



Bering Sea. 
....do 



Bering Sea . 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 



Bering Sea . 



Bering Sea. 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 



Berine: Sea. 
....do 



Bering Sea. 



Bering Sea... 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Okhotsk Sea, 



Number 
of fisb 
taken. 



154,000 
K ; ,0,()00 
45, 000 
95, 000 
SO, 000 
89,000 

623,000 



100, 000 
94, 000 

194, 000 



53,000 
177,000 

51,000 
195, 000 
151,000 

75, OOP 

702. 000 



85.000 



166,000 

1 S3, 000 

51,000 

72, 000 

135.000 

217,000 

102, 000 

7,000 



933,000 



104,000 
85,000 

ISO, 000 



107,000 



105,000 
75, 000 
179,000 
76.300 
200.000 
112,000 
120.000 
170,000 

1,037,300 



o Lost in Bering Sea. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 95 

Operations of the Cod Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1903. 



WASHINGTON. 



Lizzie Colby.. 
Carrier Dove.. 
Nellie Colman. 

Total 



BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Blakeley 

1904. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Arago.... 

Uranus 

Harriet G 

Stanley 

Fremont 

City of Papeete 

Metha Nelson 



Total. 



"WASHINGTON. 



Lizzie Colby. . . 

Alice. 

Ida May 

Nellie Colman. 
Carrier Dove.. 



Total. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Blakeley 

1905. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Zampa 

Glen 

JohnF. Miller 

Harriet G 

Stanley 

Fremont 

John D. Spreckles 

S.N. Castle 

W. H. Dimond 

City of Papeete 

Pearl.. 



Rig. 



Sen. 
Sen. 
Sen. 



Bgn. 



Sen. 

Sch. 

Brig. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Harold Blekum . 

Ida May 

Nellie Colman... 

Carrier Dove 

Joseph Russ 

Alice 

Fanny Dutard.. 

Lizzie Colby 

Falcon ". 



Total. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Blakeley 



Bgn. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 

Bgn. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Bkn. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



142 

82 

122 



346 



144 



176 
225 
188 
253 
328 
370 
399 



1,939 



142 
220 

33 
122 

82 



599 



144 



322 
121 
170 
188 
253 
328 
253 
464 
376 
370 
83 



2,928 



185 
33 
122 
82 
235 
220 
252 
142 
195 



1,466 



144 



Date of 
sailing. 



Mar. 31 
..do..... 
...do..... 
Apr. 3 
Apr. 7 
Apr. 11 
May 15 



Mar. 30 

Apr. 8 
Apr. 1 
Mar. 30 
Mar. 26 
Mar. 30 
May 5 
Apr. 27 
..do.... 
..do..... 
( 6 ) 



Mar. 13 

Apr. 20 

Apr. 18 

Apr. 1 

Apr. 8 

Apr. 1 

Apr. 15 

Apr. 10 

May 9 



Apr. 15 



Date of 
return. 



Sept. 15 



July 13 
Sept. 12 
Sept. 1 
Sept. 10 

'.'.do'.'".. 



Oct. 11 



July 27 
..do...., 



Sept. — 



Sept. 8 
Aug. 24 
Aug. 25 
Sept. 3 
Sept. 5 
Sept. 14 
Sept. 29 
Sept. 27 

...do 

Oct. 7 



Aug. 23 
July 5 
Aug. 12 
..do.... 
Aug. 31 
Aug. 21 
Sept. 4 
Aug. 15 
Sept. 1 



Sept. 29 



Fishing grounds. 



Bering Sea 

North Pacific a. 
Bering Sea 



Bering Sea. 



Shumagin Islands. 

Bering Sea 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 



Okhotsk Sea. 



Bering Sea. 

....do 

do 

do 

....do 



Bering Sea. 



Bering Sea... 

do , 

do , 

do 

....do 

....do 

Okhotsk Sea. 

....do 

....do 

....do 



Bering Sea. 



Bering Sea. 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 



.do. 
.do. 

.do. 



Bering Sea. 



a Virtually the same ground as the Shumagin Islands. 
30079°— 16 7 



ft Lost. 



Number 
of Bah 
taken. 



81,500 
95,000 
132,000 



311,500 



115,000 



69, 200 
60, 000 
140,000 
165,000 
193,000 
212,000 
223, 000 



1,062,200 



98, 000 
128, 324 
14,000 
97,000 
47,000 



384,324 



100, 000 



125,133 
65,000 
75.000 
110,000 
135,000 
1 lio.OOO 
133,000 
J I 0.000 
1M 000 
1 l:;.000 



1,336,133 



123.000 

10.000 

60 000 
40 000 

li.l. 1100 

195 000 









96 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



Operations of the Cod Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1906. 

CALIFORNIA. 



W. H. Dimond.... 

Zampa 

City of Papeete 

Fremont 

Stanley 

Harriet G 

John D. Spreckles. 

S. N. Castle 

Glen 

Ottillie Fjord ...:. 
Dora Bluhm 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Carrier Dove . . . 
Fanny Dutard . . 

Lizzie Colby 

Maid of Orleans. 
Harold Blekum. 

Fortima 

Joseph Russ 

Alice 



Total. 



1907. 



CALIFORNIA. 



City of Papeete 

Stanley 

Fremont 

John D. Spreckles. 

S.N. Castle 

Ottillie Fjord 

John F. Miller 

Dora Bluhm 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Fanny Dutard . . 

Carrier Dove 

Harold Blekum. 

Alice 

Joseph Russ 



Total. 



1908. 



CALIFORNIA. 



W. H. Dimond. 
City of Papeete. 

Stanley 

Fremont 

Ottillie Fjord . . 
Dora Bluhm... 
City of Papeete. 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 

Fanny Dutard 

Harriet G 

Maid of Orleans 

Harold Blekum 

Vega 

Fortuna :... 

Alice 

Joseph Russ 



Total. 



Rig. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Brig. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Bkn. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 



Sch. 

Brig. 

Sch. 

Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



376 
322 
370 
328 
253 
188 
253 
464 
121 
247 
315 



3.237 



82 
252 
142 
171 
185 
138 
235 
220 



1,425 



370 
253 
328 
253 
464 
247 
170 
315 



2,400 



252 
82 
185 
220 
235 



974 



376 
370 
253 
328 
247 
315 
370 



2, 259 



252 
lss 
171 
185 
233 
138 
220 
235 

1, 622 



Date of 
sailing. 



Apr. 4 

Apr. 9 

Apr. 11 

Mar. 16 

Apr. 4 

Mar. 15 

Mar. 22 

Apr. 8 

Mar. 25 

Mar. 28 

May 2 



Apr. 3 
Apr. 10 
Apr. 14 
Apr. 24 
Mar. 10 
Apr. 18 
Mar. 20 
Mar. 27 



Apr. 10 
Mar. 22 
Apr. 24 
Apr. 10 
Apr. 18 
Mar. 26 
Apr. 7 
Apr. 14 



Apr. 26 
Mar. 20 
Mar. 19 
Apr. 15 
...do.... 



Apr. 9 
Mar. 21 
Mar. 13 
Mar. 21 
Mar. 28 
Apr. 18 
Mar. 21 



Apr. 5 

Apr. 18 

Apr. 15 

Mar. 31 

Apr. 5 

Apr. 13 

Mar. 28 
...do..... 



Date of 
return. 



Oct, 3 
Oct. 10 

...do 

Sept. 9 
Sept. 2 
Sept. 4 
...do..... 
Sept. 24 
Sept. 4 
Sept. 9 
Sept. 11 



Sept. 10 
Aug. 30 
Aug. 23 
Sept. 10 
Aug. 14 
Aug. 4 
Aug. 19 
Aug. 17 



Sept. 29 
Aug. 31 
Sept. 29 
July 22 
Julv 14 
Sept. 14 
Aug. 29 
Sept. 20 



Sept. 16 

...do 

Aug. 22 
Sept. 2 
Aug. 22 



Oct. 18 

Aug. 24 
Sept. 16 
...do...., 
Sept. 4 
Oct. 16 
Aug. 24 



Sept. 6 
Sept. 15 
Aug. 26 
Sept. 3 

..do 

Aug. 11 
Aug. 23 
Aug. 24 



Fishing grounds. 



Okhotsk Sea . 
Bering Sea... 

do 

Okhotsk Sea. 
Bering Sea... 
Okhotsk Sea. 
Bering Sea... 
Okhotsk Sea. 
Bering Sea... 

do 

Okhotsk Sea. 



North Pacific. 

Bering Sea 

do 

North Pacific. 

do 

Bering Sea 

....do 

....do , 



Bering Sea... 
Okhotsk Sea . 

do 

do , 

do 

Bering Sea.. 

do 

do 



Bering Sea. 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Bering Sea . . . 
Okhotsk Sea. 

do 

do 

Bering Sea.. 

do 

do 



Bering Sea . . . 

do 

do 

do 

do 

North Pacific. 
Bering Sea . . . 
do 



Number 
of fish 
taken. 



140 
160 
181 

159 
140 
141 

80 
219 

85 
140 

33 



,000 
000 
000 
000 

,000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 

,000 



1, 478, 000 



48, 000 
198,000 
107, 000 
120, 000 
112,000 

70, 000 
197, 007 
162, 611 

1,014,61* 



120, 000 

140,000 

108,000 

5,800 

18,000 
135,000 

90,000 
125, 000 

741, 800 



180,000 
98, 500 
113,000 
165, 000 
191, 930 

748, 430 



138, 000 
118,000 
152, 000 
150,000 
125, 000 
120, 000 
107, 000 

910, 000 



160, 000 
115,000 
102,000 
170, 000 
102, 000 
110,000 
165, 000 
194,000 



1,118,000 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 
Operations of the Cod Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1909. 

CALIFORNIA. 



John D. Spreckles. 

City of Papeete 

Czarina 

Ottillie Fjord 

Fremont 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Fanny Dutard . . 

Harriet G 

Maid of Orleans . 
Harold Blekum. 

Vega 

Fortuna 

Alice 

Joseph Russ 



Total. 



1910. 



CALIFORNIA. 



'W. H. Dimond. 
City of Papeete. 
Fremont 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Fanny Dutard . . 

Alice 

Joseph Russ 

Maid of Orleans. 

Vega 

Fortuna 



Total. 



1911. 



CALIFORNIA. 



W. H. Dimond. 
City of Papeete. 
Ottillie Fjord . . 



Total . 



WASHINGTON. 



Fanny Dutard.. 

Alice 

Joseph Russ 

John A 

Fortuna 

Vega 

Maid of Orleans. 



Total. 



1912. 



CALIFORNIA. 



Vega 

W. H. Dimond. 
City of Papeete. 
Ottillie Fjord . . 
Galilee 



Rig 



Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 

Bkn. 

Bkn. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Total. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



253 
370 
218 
247 

328 



1,416 



252 
188 
171 
185 
233 
138 
220 
235 



1,622 



376 
370 

328 



1,074 



252 
220 
235 
171 
233 
138 



1,249 



376 
370 
247 



993 



252 
220 
235 
235 
138 
233 
171 



1,484 



233 
376 
370 
247 
328 

1,554 



Date of 
sailing. 



Mar. 18 
Apr. 15 
Mar. 25 
Mar. 28 
Apr. 14 



Apr. 8 

...do 

...do 

Mar. 28 
Apr. 8 
Apr. 7 
Apr. 8 
...do 



Mar. 3 
Mar. 26 
Mar. 25 



Apr. 20 

Apr. 21 

Apr. 17 

Apr. 15 

Apr. 14 

Apr. 15 



Date of 
return. 



Sept. 8 

Sept. 2 

Sept. 8 

Sept. 5 

Oct. 4 



Sept. 7 
Sept. 13 
Aug. 20 
Aug. 13 
Sept. 7 
Aug. 16 

...do 

Aug. 24 



Sept. 16 
Sept. 15 
Oct. 1 



Mar. 28 
Mar. 25 
Mar. 31 



Apr. 14 
Mar. 30 
Apr. 1 
Apr. 20 
Mar. 31 
Apr. 11 
Apr. 15 



Apr. 18 

Mar. 25 

Mar. 28 

Mar. 23 

Mar. — 



Sept. 5 
Sept. 15 
Sept. 12 
Aug. 15 
Sept. 15 
Sept. 4 



Aug. 31 
Sept. 7 



Fishing grounds. 



Bering Sea... 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Okhotsk Si i . 



Bering Sea. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Bering Sea. 

do 

do 



Bering Sea. 

do 

do 

do 

.....do 

do 



Sept. 6 Bering Sea. 



Aug. 23 
Sept. 13 
Aug. 23 
Sept, 6 
Aug. 10 
Sept. 19 
Sept. 7 



Sept. 17 
Aug. 29 
Aug. 23 
Sept. 5 
Sept. 19 



.do. 
.do. 



Bering Sea. 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

... .no 



North Pacific. 
Bering Sea.. . 

....do 

....do 

....do , 



97 



Number 

of lish 

taken. 



115,000 
155,000 
115,000 
135,000 
80,000 

600, (MX) 



170,000 
122,001) 
115,000 
110,000 
155,000 
102,000 
170,000 
204, 155 

1,148,155 



150,000 
120,000 

110.000 

:5sn. (100 



18.5, 500 
175,000 

1^0,000 
116,000 

L50, i 

105,000 

911,500 



170,1100 

180,000 
83,000 

439,000 



201,000 

lro.iioo 
204,000 
165,000 

165,000 
68 

1,103, (XX) 



139,000 
180,000 

75,0 10 
664 000 



98 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



Operations of the Cod Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1912. 



WASHINGTON. 



Maid of Orleans. 
Fanny Dutard.. 

Alice 

Joseph Russ 

Fortuna 

John A 



Total. 



1913. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Galilee 

Vega 

William IT. Dimond. . 

Citv of Papeete 

Ottillie Fjord 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Maid of Orleans . 
Fanny Dutard . . 

Alice 

John A 

Chas. R. Wilson. 



Total 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Albert Meyer 

1914. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Sequoia 

Galilee 

Vega 

City of Papeete 

Glendale 

Ottillie Fjord 



Rig. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Azalea 

Fanny Dutard.. 

Fortuna 

Alice 

Wawona 

John A 

Chas. R. Wilson. 
Maid of Orleans. 



Total. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Albert Meyer 

1915. 

CALIFORNIA. 



Sequoia 

Galilee 

Vega v 

Maweema 

City of Papeete. 

Glendale 

Ottillie Fjord.. 



Total. 



Sch. 



Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



171 

252 
220 
235 
138 
235 



1,251 



328 
233 
376 
370 
247 



1,554 



171 
252 
220 
235 
328 



1,206 



398 



324 
328 
233 
370 
281 
247 



1,783 



327 
252 
138 
220 
413 
235 
328 
171 



2,084 



398 



324 
328 
233 
392 
370 
281 
247 

2, 175 



Date of 
sailing. 



Apr. 12 

Apr. 10 

Apr. 5 

Apr. 7 

Apr. 11 

Apr. 12 



Aug. 26 
Aug. 14 
Sept. 8 
aApr. 21 
Sept. 17 
Sept. 15 



Mar. 7 
Feb. 6 
Mar. 19 
Mar. 13 
Mar. 18 



Apr. 13 

Apr. 11 

Mar. 27 

Apr. 5 

Apr. 2 



Aug. — 



Mar. 21 
Mar. 24 
Mar. 17 
Mar. 23 
..do... 
Mar. 18 



Date of 
return. 



Sept. 9 
Sept. 14 
Aug. 20 
Aug. 27 
Aug. 26 



Sept. 10 

..do 

Sept. 2 
Sept. 15 
Sept. 2 



Apr. 6 

Apr. 5 

Apr. 2 

Mar. 25 

Apr. 1 

Apr. 7 

Apr. 2 

Apr. 7 



Mar. 23 



Mar. 16 

Mar. 24 

Mar. 17 

Mar. 25 

Mar. 23 

Mar. 20 

Mar. 19 



Oct. 16 



Sept. 9 
Sept. 12 
Aug. 26 
Sept. 3 
Sept. 6 
Sept. 3 



Fishing grounds. 



Number 
offish 
taken. 



Bering Sea. 

....do 

....do 



Bering Sea 

North Pacific. 



Bering Sea 

North Pacific. 
Bering Sea... 

do 

do 



Bering Sea... 

do 

....do 

North Pacific. 
Bering Sea... 



Bering Sea. 



Bering Sea... 

do 

North Pacific. 
Bering Sea... 

do 

do 



Sept. 11 
Sept. 15 
Sept. 8 
Sept. 15 
Sept. 11 
Sept. 13 
Sept. 7 
Sept. 13 



Sept. 9 



Aug. 13 
Sept. 5 
Aug. 26 
Sept. 7 
Aug. 19 
Aug. 13 
Aug. 27 



Bering Sea... 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

North Pacific. 
Bering Sea... 



Bering Sea. 



Bering Sea . . 

do 

North Pacific. 
Bering Sea... 

do 

do 



.do. 



101,000 
189,000 
171,000 



89,000 
134, 000 

684,000 



145,000 
130,000 
100, 000 
183,000 
99,000 

717,000 



105,000 
195, 000 
137, 000 
140, 000 
187,000 

764,000 



260 



152,000 
166. 000 
150,000 
187,000 
155,202 
121,000 

931, 202 



212, 000 
172, 000 

96,000 
171,000 
240, 000 
100, 000 
209, 000 

52,000 

1,252,000 



100,000 



228, 500 
195, 000 
119,000 
235,000 
195, 000 
161,000 
120, 000 

1,253,500 



« Lost 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 99 

Opekations of the Cod Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1915. 



"WASHINGTON. 



Azalea 

Fanny Dutard.. 

Fortuna 

Alice. 

Wawona 

John A 

Chas. R. Wilson. 
Maid of Orleans. 

Total 



ALASKA. 

Highland Queen 

Challenge 

Silver Wave 

Miscellaneous power vessels. 

Total 



Rig. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Gas. s. 
Gas. s. 
Gas. s. 
Gas. s. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



Date of 
sailing. 



327 
252 
138 
220 
413 
235 
328 
171 



2,084 



12 

35 

19 

101 



167 



Apr. 12 
Apr. M) 
Mar. 23 
Apr. 10 
Apr. 14 
Apr. 12 
Apr. 10 
Apr. 3 



(a) 



Date of 

return. 



Sept. 6 
Sept. 4 
Aug. 22 
Sept. 6 
Aug. 21 
Sept. 30 
Sept. 4 
...do.... 



Fishing grounds. 



I Soring Sea... 

do 

do 

do 

do 

North Pacific. 
Bering Sea... 
do 



North Pacific. 

do 

do 

do 



Number 
of fish 
taken. 



20fi,000 
188,000 

1111,01)0 
10,, 248 
258,323 
1.54,000 
181,000 
110.000 



1,374,571 



5,000 
12,500 

8,000 
80,000 

105, 500 



a Wrecked about Apr. 20. 
SUMMARY OF THE SHORE-STATION DATA. 

The following table shows, in a condensed form, the data relating 
to the vessels plying to and from the Alaska shore stations and the fish 
brought from thence to the home stations. These transporting ves- 
sels usually make several trips each year, and in some instances fish- 
ing vessels are utilized for this purpose when not engaged in fishing. 
The total fish transported represent the catches made at the various 
shore stations. 

Summary of Shore-Station Data. 



Year. 



876, 
877. 
878, 
879 
880 
881 
882 
883 
884 
885 
886 
887 
888 
889 
890 
891 
892 
893 
894 
895 
896 
897 
898 
899 



Number 


Net 


Number 


of vessels. 


tonnage. 


of trips. 


1 


114 


1 


1 


114 


1 


3 


190 


6 


1 


64 


4 


2 


172 


4 


1 


64 


3 


1 


108 


3 


2 


245 


4 


1 


137 


3 


2 


278 


4 


3 


454 


5 


1 


137 


3 


2 


285 


4 


4 


823 


7 


4 


621 


9 


4 


624 


7 


2 


388 


4 


2 


366 


4 


1 


218 


2 


1 


218 


2 


1 


125 


1 


4 


652 


6 


6 


930 


9 


6 


975 


11 



Number 

of cod 

brought 

to Califor- 



nia. 



30, 000 
101,000 
227, 000 

his, ooo 

201,000 
151,000 
203, 000 
235,000 
249, 000 
386, 000 
383,000 
299,000 
372, 000 
489, 000 
773,000 
662, 000 
700, 000 
660,000 
305,000 

2S0.0O0 



511, (MM) 
450, 000 
722,000 



Number 
of cod 
brought 
to Wash- 
ington. 



Total 
number 

from shore 
stations. 



30,000 
101, (MM) 
227, (Mil) 
19S,(M)0 
201, (MX) 
154,000 
203,000 
2:r,.iMM) 
249,000 
386,000 
;k<.oik) 
2'. i'. '. i MM) 
372. (MM) 

189,000 

77:i.imki 
662,000 

7(M),000 

(,(■,11.111)11 
ho:,, i ii mi 

■jMi.lMK) 

\ii report. 

.",11. (MM) 

450,000 

722, (MM) 



100 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



Summary of Shore-Station Data — Continued. 



Year. 


Number 
ofvessels. 


Net 
tonnage. 


Number 
of trips. 


Number 

of cod 
brought 
to Califor- 
nia. 


Number 
of cod 
brought 
to Wash- 
ington. 


Total 

number 

from shore 

stations. 


1900 


5 
5 
6 
4 
6 
6 
11 
7 
9 
8 
3 
7 
4 
6 
6 
3 


898 

907 
1,080 

631 
1,100 
1,384 
2,117 
1,153 
2,281 
2,134 

724 
1,836 
1,040 
1,397 
1,465 

719 


9 

8 

11 

11 

10 

10 

15 

14 

12 

9 

7 

9 

7 

6 

11 

7 


909, 000 
727, 000 

1, 140, 000 
985, 000 
959, 000 

1,274,000 
890, 632 
b 1,116, 951 
994, 403 
897,361 
680, 600 
909, 000 
960, 984 
e 657, 847 

1,481,000 

1,114,400 




909, 000 

727, 000 

1, 140, 000 

985, 000 

1, 002, 000 

1,282,000 

1,020,632 

1,518,951 

1, 146, 403 

910,361 

683, 475 

992, 000 

997, 934 

804, 097 

1,585,600 

1,144,500 


1901 




1902 




1903 




1904 


43,000 

a 8, 000 

130, 000 

402, 000 

152, 000 

c 13, 000 

c2,875 

d 83,000 

c 36,950 

c 146, 250 

c 104, 600 

30,100 


1905 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 : 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 




Total 








24, 293, 178 


1,151,775 


25, 444, 953 











a Schooner Nellie Colman, from Seattle, lost with 30 lives. 

b Schooner Glen, from San Francisco, lost with 28,000 fish. 

c Shipped on regular steamship lines. 

d Eight thousand of these were shipped on regular steamers. 

« Schooner John D. Spreckles, of San Francisco, lost with 145,000 cod aboard. 

DETAILED OPERATIONS OF THE TRANSPORTING FLEET FROM 1876 

TO 1915. 

The table which follows shows in detail the cod shipped from the 
shore fishing stations in Alaska, from 1876, when the first station was 
established, to 1915, both inclusive. The name, rig, and tonnage of 
the transporting vessel is shown, together with the dates of depar- 
ture from and arrival at the home station, also the number of cod 
brought.® From 1876 to 1903, both inclusive, the data relate exclu- 
sively to California. 

Operations of the Transporting Fleet by Years. 



Name of vessel. 



Wild Gazelle. 
Wild Gazelle. 



Alaska 

Do 

Alfred Adams 

Do 

Do 

Ariel 



Total. 



1876. 

CALIFORNIA. 6 



1877. 



1878. 



Rig. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



114 



114 



32 
*64 



94 



Date of 
sailing. 



Oct. 18 



Sept. 24 



Mar. 18 
June 24 
Apr. 4 
July 9 
Sept. 10 



Date of 
return. 



Nov. 18 



June 15 
Sept. 15 
June 22 
Aug. 29 
Nov. 9 
June 25 



Number 
offish 

brought. 



30,000 



101,000 



22,000 
12,000 
51,000 
46,000 
51,000 
45,000 



227,000 



a For the data relating to the fleet of transporters owned and operated from San Francisco the writer is 
indebted to the very complete and accurate records kept by the Union Fish Co. (formerly the McCollam 
Fishing & Trading Co.), of San Francisco. 

b From 1876 to 1903, inclusive, the data relate to California exclusively. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 101 

Operations of the Transporting Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1879. 



Alfred Adams. 

Do 

Do 

Do 



Total. 



1880. 



Alfred Adams. 

Do 

Do 

Wild Gazelle. 



Total. 



1881. 



Alfred Adams . 

Do 

Do 



Total. 



1882. 



Wild Gazelle. 

Do 

Do 



Total. 



1883. 



Wild Gazelle. 

Do 

Do 

Czar 



Total. 



1884. 



Czar. 



Do. 
Do. 



Total. 



1885. 



Czar 

Do 

Do 

Dashing Wave. 



Total. 



1886. 



Arago 

Dashing Wave . 
Czar 



Do. 
Do. 



Rig. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Total. 



1887. 



Czar. 



Do. 
Do. 



Total. 



Sch. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



64 



64 



108 



64 



108 



108 



137 



137 



137 



141 



176 
141 
137 



137 



Date of 
sailing. 



Mar. 12 
May 13 
July 11 

Sept. 2 



Mar. 16 
May 17 
July 3 
Sept. 11 



Mar. 21 
June 7 
July 26 



Mar. 18 
June 2 
Aug. 12 



Pate of 
return. 



Apr. 25 
June 29 
Aug. 25 
Oct. 14 



May 8 
Juiie 25 
Aug. 16 
Oct. 23 



May 31 
July 19 
Sept. 18 



May 16 
July 28 
Oct. 2 



Mar. 20 
June 21 
Aug. 15 
Oct. 3 



Mar. 23 
June 25 
Sept. 16 



Mar. 12 

May 8 
July 19 
Apr. 1 



Jan. 7 
Mar. 14 
Apr. 1-4 
June 13 
Aug. 28 



Apr. 2 
June 11 
Aug. 25 



June 14 
Aug. 3 

(a) 

Nov. 10 



June 14 
Aug. 14 
Nov. 5 



Apr. 20 
June 30 
Sept. 19 
June 11 



Sept. L8 
May 30 

M:u 24 
\Mg. 10 
Oct. 10 



May 20 
Aug. 7 
Oct. 15 



Number 

of fish 
brought. 



56,000 
57,000 
45,000 

40,000 



198,000 



42,000 
52,000 
45,000 
62,000 



201,000 



52,000 
51,000 
51,000 



154,000 



60,000 
83,000 
60,000 



203,000 



85, 000 
90,000 

60,666 



235,000 



102,000 
97,000 
50,000 



249,000 



68,000 
120,000 

'.is, nun 
100.000 



386,000 



60,000 
58,000 
99,000 
101,000 
65,000 






125,000 
99,000 



299,000 



a Lost Aug. 19. 



102 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



Operations of the Transporting Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1888. 



Czar 

Do 

Do 

Eliza Miller. 



Total. 



1889. 



Czar 

Do 

Do 

Dashing Wave. 

Do 

Arago.. 

Hera 



Total. 



1890. 



Czar 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Dashing Wave. 

Do 

Do 

John Hancock. 
Arago 



Total. 



1891. 



John Hancock. 
Czar 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Blake ley 

Arago 



Total. 



1892. 



Czarina 

Do 

Do 

John F. Miller. 



Total. 



1893. 



Czarina. 
Do. 
Do. 



Eliza Miller. 
Total. 



1894. 



Czarina. 



Rig. 



Sen. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch'. 



Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 

Sch. 



Bgn. 
Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Do 

Total. 



1895. 



Czarina. 
Do. 



Total. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



137 



148 



137 



141 



176 
369 



137 



141 



167 
176 



167 
137 



144 
176 



218 



170 



218 



148 



218 



218 



Date of 
sailing. 



Mar. 12 
June 3 
Aug. 26 
Aug. 30 



FeD. 11 
May 2 
Julv 10 
Mar. 21 
July 12 
Apr. 5 



Feb. 10 
Apr. 19 
June 29 
Sept. 13 
Mar. 12 
June 15 



Mar. 16 
Mar. 22 



Jan. 7 
Feb. 12 
May 5 
July 15 
Sept. 13 
Mav 30 
Sept. 10 



Jan. -30 
May 14 
Aug. 18 
Apr. 30 



Feb. 3 

May 18 
Aug. 19 
May 14 



Apr. 5 
Aug. 4 



Mar. 7 
Aug. 4 



Date of 

return. 



May 14 
Aug. 8 
Oct. 31 
Oct. 25 



Apr. 6 
June 25 
Sept. 1 
June 28 
Oct. 8 
Aug. 21 



Apr. 7 

June 17 

Aug. 30 

Nov. 12 

May 26 

July 26 

Oct. 22 

Aug. 19 

Aug. 12 



May 31 
Apr. 21 
July 3 
Sept. 1 
Nov. 13 
Aug. 21 
Nov. 8 



Apr. 17 

July 11 

Oct. 31 

June 28 



Apr. 28 
July 18 
Oct. 27 



June 28 
Oct. 10 



May 18 
Oct. 18 



Number 

offish 

brought. 



131,000 

115,000 

55, 000 

71,000 

372,000 



132,000 

127, 000 

66,000 

95,000 

"65,666 
4,000 

489, 000 



115,000 

117,000 

103, 000 

45,000 

80,000 

80,000 

70,000 

45,000 

118,000 

773,000 



85,000 

110,000 

122,000 

130,000 

75,000 

90,000 

50,000 

662, 000 



210,000 
240,000 
100,000 
150, 000 

700,000 



240,000 

215, 000 

75,000 

130,000 

660,000 



190, 000 
115, 000 

305,000 



126,000 
160, 000 

286,000 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 103 

Opekations of the Transporting Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Francis Alice . 



Eliza Miller... 

Czarina 

Mary and Ida. 
Winchester... 

Czarina 

Mary and Ida. 



Total. 



Czarina 

Winchester... 

Do 

Czarina 

Arago 

Francis Alice. 
Mary and Ida. 
Francis Alice . 
Winchester. . . 



Total. 



Winchester 

Arago 

Francis Alice . . 
Do 

Winchester 

Czarfna; 

John F. Miller. 

Winchester 

Mary and Ida . 

Do 

Francis Alice.. 



Total. 



Anna 

Czarina 

Mary and Ida. 

Arago 

Czarina 

Winchester. . . 

Do 

Czarina 

Mary and Ida . 



Total. 



Arago 

Mary and Ida . 
Winchester. .. 

Czarina 

Anna 

Czarina 

Winchester... 
Do 



Total. 



Name of vessel. 



1896. 



1897. 



1898. 



1899. 



Rig. 



Sen. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



1900. 



1901. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



125 



148 
218 
174 
112 
218 
174 



218 
112 



218 
176 
125 
174 
125 
112 



Date of 
sailing. 



Aug. 28 



Jan. 4 
Sept. 12b 
May 7 
May 25 
June 23 
Feb. 4 



Date of 
return. 



Sept. 30<- 
Sept. 20 
Mar. 24 
Apr. 7 
Oct. 3c 



Aug. — 
Sept. 29 
June 26 



112 
176 
125 



112 
218 
170 
112 
174 



125 



227 
218 
174 
176 
218 
112 



218 
174 



176 
174 
112 
218 
227 
218 
112 



Jan. 
Aug. 
Dec. 
Mar. 

Mar. 

Sept. 

May 

June 

Oct. 

Aug. 

Oct. 



3 

2d 
294 
11 
17 
2U 

5 

4 

30^ 
25 
21 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Mar. 
Oct. 
Apr. 
Oct. 
Mav 
July 
Aug. 



6 
17 
19 
12* 
11 

le 
23 
22 
21 



Feb. 17 
Apr. 20 
Sept. 9 
Sept. 3 
Sept. 8 
Apr. 27 



Mar. 7 
Mar. 10 
June 17 
Sept. 7 
Apr. 10 
June 11 
Sept. 27 
Dec. 16 
Oct. 31 



Mar. 9 
Jan. 20 
Feb. 25 
June 5 
May 19 
Apr. 3 
July 5 
Aug. 1 
July 28 
Dec. 12 
Dec. 20 



Oct. 9/ 
Mar. 24 
Apr. 7 
Nov. 3/ 
Nov. 21/ 
May 6 
July 13 
Oct. 8 



Mar. 27 
Mar. 23 
Aug. 2 
Mar. 27 
June 28 
May 10 
Aug. 8 
Oct. 20 
Nov. 14 



Mar. 21 
Aug. 27 
June 26 
Apr. 15 

(s) 
July 13 
Sept. 15 
Nov. 23 



a Catch not reported. 
b 1896. 
c 1897. 
d 1898. 



«1899 
/1900 



Number 

of fish 

brought. 



g Lost Company Harbor, Sannak Island, Mar. 3, 1901. 



(a) 



77,000 
1L.000 

90,000 

47,000 
144,000 

35, 000 



511,000 



17,000 
101,000 
30, 000 
118,000 
26,000 
52,000 
47,000 
28,000 
31,000 



450,000 



40, 000 
25, 000 
61,000 
78,000 
63, 000 
71,000 
79,000 
36, 000 
75, 000 
129,000 
65,000 



722, 000 



90,000 
170,000 
106,000 

35,000 
192,000 

55,000 

57,000 
123,000 

81,000 



909, 000 



31,000 
95,000 
85,000 

165, 000 



206,000 

85,000 
60,000 



727,000 



104 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

Operations of the Transporting Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1902. 



Mary and Ida. 

Pearl 

Czarina 

Arago 

Czarina 

Mary and Ida . 

Pearl 

Czarina 

Stanley 

Mary and Ida. 
Viking 



Total. 



1903. 



Pearl 

Czarina 

Pearl 

Volante. . 

Pearl 

Czarina 

Pearl 

Do 

Czarina 

Pearl 

Mary and Ida . 



Total 



Rig. 



Sen. 
Sen. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



1904. 



CALIFORNIA. 



Czarina 

Mary and Ida 

Pearl 

John D. Spreckles. 

Pearl 

Czarina 

Do 

Pearl 

John D. Spreckles. 



Total. 



Wi SHINGTON. 



Carrier Dove. 



1905. 



CALIFORNIA. 



Czarina 

Do 

Do 

Annie Larsen 

Stanley 

Do '., 

John D. Spreckles. 

W. IT. Dimond 

Zampa 

Marion 

Do 

John F. Miller 

Glen 



Total. 



"WASHINGTON. 



From -Kodiak . 
Nellie Colman . 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



Sch. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Seh. 
Sch. 



Sch. 



174 
120 
218 
176 
21S 
174 
120 
218 
253 
174 
139 



120 
218 
120 
119 
120 
218 
120 



218 
120 
174 



218 
174 
120 
253 
120 
218 



120 
253 



82 



218 



320 
253 



253 
370 
322 
223 



170 
121 



122 



Date of 
sailing. 



Sept. 29f* 
Feb. 2 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Mar. 
Feb. 
May 24 
June 20 
Sept. 14 
Sept. 16 



6a 
26a 
16 

5 



Dec. 7b 
Jan. 28 
Feb. 12 
Mar. 10 
Apr. 9 
Apr. 12 
June 5 
Aug. 11 
..do... 
Oct. 26 
Sept. 30 



Jan. 17 
...do..... 
Jan. 19 
Apr. 10 
...do... 
Apr. 11 
July 22 
Sept. 27 
Aug. 11 



Jan. 
Apr. 
Aug. 
Apr. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Jan. 
Oct. 
Apr. 
July 
Oct. 
Sept. 



16 
1 

17 

5 
23d 
10 
24 
18 
12 

1 
IS 

7 
1!) 



July 10 
Oct. 1 



Date of 
return. 



Jan. 14 
Mav 15 
Feb. 16 
Mar. 10 
May 29 
Mar. 20 
July 9 
Aujr. 25 
Nov. 11 
Nov. 28 
Aug. 1 



Jan. 28 
Mar. 30 
Mar. 26 
June 6 
Mav 28 
July 18 
July 26 
Oct. 6 
Nov. 9 
Dec. 28 
Dec. 24 



Mar. 24 

CO 

Mar. 24 
June 22 
Aug. 10 
June 23 
Oct. 3 
Nov. 18 
Nov. 26 



Feb. 20 



Mar. 19 
July 18 
Nov. 5 
June 10 
Jan. 29 



Number 

offish 
brought. 



16, 000 

6.0, 000 

167, 000 

45,000 

208, 000 

125, 000 

60, 000 

208, 000 

112, 000 

48, 000 

91,000 

1, 140, 000 



18,000 
135,000 

22,000 
150,000 

68, 000 
192, 000 

66, 000 

54, 000 
180, 000 

30,000 

70, 000 

985,000 



144, 000 

"55,000 
146, 000 
38,000 
204, 000 
180, 000 
30,000 
162, 000 

959, 000 



43,000 



125, 000 
163, 000 
144,000 
252, 000 
205, 000 



Dec. 1 
Mar. 22 



June 18 
Sept. 24 



Oct. 12 



a 1901. 

b 1902. 

c Lost on Un^a Island, Feb. 23, 1904 had 78,000 fish aboard. 



d 1904. 

< Wrecked. 



150,000 



145. 000 
90,000 



1,274.000 



8,000 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 105 

Operations of the Transporting Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1906. 



CALIFORNIA. 



Marion 

Do 

Czarina 

Do 

Stanley 

Alpha 

John F. Miller. 

Do 

Do 

Glen 

Dora Bluhm... 
Newport 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Maid of Orleans. 
Ralph J. Long.. 
Fortuna 



Total. 



1907. 



CALIFORNIA. 



W. H. Dimond. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Hunter 

Czarina- 

Do 

Do 

Rosie H 

Glen 

Do 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Maid of Orleans . 

Do 

Fortuna 

Do 



Total. 



1908. 



CALIFORNIA. 



W. H. Dimond.... 
John D. Spreckles. 

Do 

Repeat 

City of Papeete 

Czarina 

Do 

Ivy 



Ida McKay — 
Do 

John F. Miller. 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Maid of Orleans . 
Do 



Total. 



Rig. 



Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 

s. s. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 

Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch. 

Bkn. 

Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 



Sch.. 



Sch.. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



223 
218 



253 
274 
170 



121 
315 
149 



171 

85 
138 



376 



GO 
218 



69 
121 



171 



138 



376 
253 



410 
370 
218 



135 
178 



Date of 
sailing. 



(a) 
Mar. 19 
Feb. 26 
Aug. 13 
Oct. 10c 
Mar. 12 
Oct. lc 
Apr. 8 
Julv 29 
Sept. 19c 
May 2 
July 4 



June 23 
(a) 



Dec. — d 
Mar. 20 
June 21 
Oct. 31 
Sept. 20d 
Jan. 24 
Apr. 20 
Aug. 22 

(a) 
Apr. 13 
Aug. 25 



Apr. 2 
Aug. 29 
Mar. 15 
May 27 



170 



Jan. 
Mar. 
July 
Apr. 
Oct. 
Dec. 
Apr. 
Mar. 
Apr. 
July 
Nov. 



28 
13 
23 
18 

9 
\2( 

2 
19 

6 
11 
23/ 



171 



Sept. 24 



Date of 
return. 



Mar. 12 

( b ) 
Julv 19 
Oct. 29 
Mar. 10 
June 10 
Mar. 17 
Julv 5 
Scjit. 30 
Mar. 8 
Sept. 11 
Aug. 19 



March... 
July 5 
Apr. 5 



Jan. 18 
June 4 
Oct. 2 



Sept. 30 
Mar. 27 
July 19 
Nov. 9 
June 27 
June 10 
(«) 



July 30 



May 15 
Oct. 1 



Mar. 22 
June 20 
Oct. 19 
July .9 



Mar. 7 
July 11 
May 15 
June 18 
Sept. 22 



Mar. 8 
Nov. 22 



Number 

of fish 

brought. 



20,000 



153 349 

98, 000 
63,000 

244,283 
25,000 
84,000 
40, 000 
5,000 
33, 000 

125, 000 



890, 632 



10,000 

100, 000 

20,000 



130,000 



103,000 

292,000 

60, 000 



50,000 

130,000 

177, 665 

174, 286 

45,000 

85,000 



1,116,951 



98,000 

169,000 

40, 000 

95, 000 



402,000 



80,000 

205,000 

80,000 

In ballast 



92,903 
186, 500 

100,000 

150,000 

100,01)0 



994, H)3 



65,000 

S7.000 



152,000 



a Wintered in the North. 
b Lost Apr. 11, 1906. 
c 1905. 
d 1906. 



e Lost Sept. 30, with 28,000 fish. 

/ 1907. 

g Wrecked Jan. 8, 1908. 



106 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



Opekations of the Transporting Fleet by Yeaes — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 



1909. 



CALIFORNIA. 



City of Papeete 

John D. Spreckles. . 

W. H. Dimond 

Czarina , 

Stanley 

Ida McKay 

Dora Bluhm 

Do 

San Buena Ventura . 



Total. 



Rig. 



Net 
ton- 
nage. 



Bkn. 

Sen. 
Sen. 
Sen. 
Sen. 
Sen. 
Sen. 



Sen. 



WASHINGTON. 



Regular steamers. 



1910. 

CALIFORNIA. 



John D. Sprecldes. 

Do 

Do 

Stanley 

Czarina 

Do 

Do 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Regular steamers. 



1911. 



CALIFORNIA. 



John D. Spreckles. 

Do 

Do 

City of Papeete 

Galilee 

Czarina 

Sequoia 

Ottillie Fjord 



Total. 



Sch. 



Sch. 
Sch. 



370 
253 
376 
218 
253 
178 
315 



Date of 
sailing. 



Sept. 3 
Dec. 5a 
Mar. 15 
Oct. 9* 
Apr. 26 
Mar. 30 



171 



253 



253 
218 



Sch. 



Bkn. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 

Sch. 



WASHINGTON. 



Bender Bros 

Regular steamers. 



Total. 



1912. 



CALIFORNIA. 



Vega , 

Sequoia 

John D. Spreckles. 

Bertha Dolbeer 

John D. Spreckles. 

Sequoia 

Bertha Dolbeer 



Total. 



WASHINGTON. 



Regular steamers . 



Seh. 



Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 



253 



370 
328 
218 
324 
247 



( ft ) 



Nov. 10c 
Mar. 25 
June 13 
Oct. 17c 
June 13 
Apr. 7 
Oct. 7 



Date of 
return. 



Oct. 29 
Feb. 21 
May 12 
Feb. 25 
June 25 
June 14 
July 8 
Sept. 26 
Nov. — 



96 



233 
324 
253 
230 
253 
324 
230 



( b ) 



Oct. 31 e 
Apr. 9 
July 16 
Oct. 4 
May 20 
Jan. 15 
Aug. 14 
Sept. 25 



( b ) 



Mar. 9 
May 31 
Oct. 3 

Aug. 16 
May 31 
Nov. 24 



Apr. 20 
( fc ) 



(») 



Mar. 17 
June 20 
Sept. 25 
Dec. 7 
July 27 

(/) 
Oct. 10 
Dec. 8 



Oct. 200 
Mar. 31 
Apr. 7 
Apr. 6 
Mav 29 
July 27 



a 1908. 

& Various dates. 

c 1909. 

d Wrecked Mar. 28, 1910. 



t 1910. 

/ Lost Feb. 

1911. 



(») 



15, 1910. 



June 6 
( 6 ) 



Jan. 17 

July 1 

Apr. 27 

June 27 

Aug. 29 

Oct. 6 

Nov. 17 



(») 



Number 

of fish 
brought. 



155,000 

44,000 

105,000 

125,000 

272,361 

65, 000 

85,000 

16, 000 

30, 000 

897,361 



13, 000 



90,000 

90, 000 

130, 000 

"i2o,'fi66 

160, 000 
90, 000 

680, 600 



2,875 



131,000 
169, 000 
103, 000 
55, 000 
251, 000 

"266,' 666 



909, 000 



75, 000 
8,000 

83, 000 



152, 000 
276, 984 
150, 000 
30.000 
135, 000 
210, 000 
7,000 



960, 984 



36,950 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 



107 



Operations of the Than sporting Fleet by Years — Continued. 



Name of vessel. 


Rig. 


Net 
ton- 
nage. 


Date of 
sailing. 


Date of 
return. 


Number 

of fish 

brought. 


1913. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Galilee 


Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 
Sch. 


328 
324 
223 
253 
230 


Nov. Ho 
Mar. 29 
Aug. 15 
Jan. 25 
Mar. 8 


Jan. 11 

May 30 
Oct 13 

( & ) 
July 28 


190,847 


Sequoia 


240, 000 
175 000 


Golden State 


John D . Spreckles 




Bertha Dolbeer 


52,000 




Total 


657, 847 




Sch. 


39 




Oct. 29 
( c ) 


WASHINGTON. 

Union Jack 


20 000 


Regular steamers 


( c ) 


126, 250 








Total 


146, 250 




Bktn. 


370 


Oct. &d 
Oct. 18 
Nov. 15a" 
Mar. 5 
May 20 
Oct. 15 
Jan. 9 
Mar. 3 
June 20 
Mar. 10 
July 18 


Jan. 25 
Dec. 21 
Jan. 15 
Apr. 20 
Aug. 4 
Dec. 20 
Jan. 28« 
May 27 
Nov. 2 
May 27 
Oct 1 


1914. 

CALIFORNIA, d 

City of Papeete 


200,000 


Do 


45, 000 
159, 000 


Golden State 


Sch. 


223 


Do 


199,420 


Do 






194.000 


Do 






171,000 


W. H. Dimond 


Sch. 
Sch. 


376 
266 


Allen A 


210,000 


Do 


200,000 


Bertha Dolbeer 


Sch. 


230 


32, 000 


Do 


41,000 








Total 


1,481,420 








( c ) 

Feb. 21 
May 6 
Oct. 19 
Feb. 18 
June 18 
Sept. 6 
Mar. 13 


Apr. 12 
July 1 
Dec. 15 
June 2 
Aug. 15 
Dec. 22 
June 2 




WASHINGTON. 

Independent stations, regular steamers 


104,600 

174,000 
230,000 


1915. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Golden State 


Gas. s. 


223 


Do 


Do 






170,000 


Allen A 


Sch. 


266 


267,400 


Do 


193.000 


Do 






47,000 


Bertha Dolbeer 


Sch. 


230 


33,000 






Total 


1,114,400 
30, 100 


WASHINGTON. 






( c ) 


(«) 











a 1912. 

b Lost; had 145,000 fish aboard; all lost. 

c Various dates. 



d 1913. 
« Lost. 



DISASTERS TO THE FLEET. 

Operating as it does in far northern waters, where the dangers to 
navigation are numerous and the waters are very poorly surveyed 
and charted, it is a matter for congratulation that so few disasters 
have been recorded as occurring to the fleet. The following table, 
which is not claimed to be complete, shows the total wrecks of which 
it was possible to find a record. No account is taken of the many 



108 



PACIFIC COD FISHEEIES. 



minor accidents to the fleet, of partial disablements, groundings, etc., 
some of which proved very costly to the owners, however. 

Record of Wrecks of Codfish Vessels from 1877 to 1915, Inclusive. 



Name." 


Owner and home port. 


Where wrecked. 


Date. 


Lives 
lost. 


Codfish 
lost. 


Bronl es 


, San Francisco 




1877 




• 


Sarah 


Lynde & Hough, San Fran- 
cisco. 

McCollam & Co., Alaska 

N. Bichard, San Francisco 




1879 






Nagav & 


Popof Island 


Summer, 1880 
1882 






General Miller 






H. L. Tiernan 


Lynde & Hough, San Fran- 
cisco. 

McCollam & Co., San Fran- 
cisco. 

Hansen & Anderson, San 
Francisco. 

Lynde & Hough, San " Fran- 
cisco. 
..do 


Shumagin Islands. 


1882 






Wild Gazelle... 


Aug. 19,1883 
1888 






Isabel 


Foundered at sea. . 
Bering Sea 


14 




Dashing Wave 

John Hancock . 


Apr. 16,1891 

Mar. 7, 1893 
1902 








Anna 


Alaska Codfish Co., San Fran- 
cisco. 
do 


Bering Sea 

Unga Island 






Mary and Ida 


Feb. 23,1904 
1905 


30 
30 


78. 000 


Pearl . 


...do 




Nellie Colman . . 


Seattle & Alaska Codfish Co., 
Seattle. 

Union Fish Co., Alaska 

Alaska Codfish Co., San Fran- 
cisco. 

Pacific States Trading Co., 
San Francisco. 

....do 


At sea 


1905 




Pirate b 


Alaska 


1906 


. .* 


Marion 


Sannak Island 

Unimak Island 

do .' 


Apr. 11,1906 

Sept. 30,1907 

Jan. 8, 1908 
Mar. 28,1910 

Feb. 15,1911 
Apr. 21,1912 

Mar. 29,1913 

Feb. 3, 1914 
1915 






Glen 


1 

clO 
4 


28,000 


John F. Miller 




Stanley 


Union Fish Co., San Fran- 
cisco. 
....do 


Sannak Island 

Nagai Island 

Chirikof Island 

Run down off Cal- 
ifornia coast. 

Bird Island 

Shumagin Islands . 
Shumagin Islands. 




Czarina 




Joseph Russ 

John D. Spreckles.. 
W. H. Dimond 


Robinson Fisheries Co., Ana- 

cortes, Wash. 
Alaska Codfish Co., San Fran- 
cisco. 
do 


1 
2 


145, 000 


Nonpareil^ 


..do 






H ighland Queen 




About Apr. 20 















a All schooner rigged, except the Nonpareil, which was a power schooner. 
6 Employed in station work. 
cAll frozen to death. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

The following bibliography of the cod fisheries of the Pacific coast 
is not intended to be a complete list of the works and articles on this 
subject, but does include practically all that contain anything of 
value relating to the commercial phases of it. The Pacific Fisher- 
man, of Seattle, Wash., contains many short articles and notes relat- 
ing to the industry, only a few of the more important of which have 
been listed. The newspapers of San Francisco, Gal., and Seattle and 
Anacortes, Wash., also contain a number of references to the in- 
dustry. 

Alexander, A. B. 

1912. Preliminary examination of halibut fishing grounds of the Pacific 
coast. U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Document no. 763, p. 13-56. 
Washington. 



PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 109 

Bean, Takleton H. 

1881. A contribution to the biography of the commercial cod of Alaska. 

Transactions of American Fish-Cultural Association, p. 16-34. 
1887. The fishery resources and fishing grounds of Alaska. From the fish- 
eries and fishery industries of the United States, sec. in, p. 81-115. 
1887. The cod fishery of Alaska. From the fisheries and fishery industries 
of the United States, sec. v, vol. i, p. 198-226. Washington. 
Bitting, A. W. 

1911. Preparation of the cod and other salt fish for the market ; including 

a bacteriological study of the causes of the reddening. U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry Bulletin no. 133. 
Washington. 
Bower, Ward T., and Fassett, Harry Clifford. 

1914. Fishery industries. From Alaska fisheries and fur industries in 1913. 

U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Document no. 797, appendix n to lleport 
of Commissioner for 1913, p. 37-138. Washington. 
Bower, Ward T., and Alter, Henry D. 

1915. Alaska fisheries and fur industries in 1914. U. S. Bureau of Fish- 

eries Document no. 819, 89 p. Washington. 
Chamberlain, F. M., and Cobb, John N. 

1912. Statistics of the fisheries of Alaska for 1911. From Alaska fisheries 

and fur industries in 1911. U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Document 
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110 PACIFIC COD FISHERIES. 

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